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format b
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                                                                                                                    "ALWAYS QUESTION THE STRUCTURE "
                                           "There is not a good Biennale without Biennalist"

Biennalist is an Art Format   by Thierry Geoffroy / Colonel    studying Biennales concepts and questionning  with artworks. (Biennales and other cultural managed events like documenta , festivals , ( climate ) conferences etc .... ) . Often those events promote them selves with  thematics and alos often take a political posture . Biennalist take the thematics of the Biennales very seriously , and test their pertinance often on location . Artists have questionned for decades the  canvas , the pigment , the museum ... , since 1988  Colonel and the Biennalists question  the Biennales ( always question the structure )  .Often Biennalist converge with Emergency Room  ( today before it is too late )  and pulse in the Now . Biennalist can also activate the Critical Run Format  the  Penetration Format , as well as Rumeur Art  Format , the Fight Debate Format , the Slow Dance Format etc ...(Art formats )

Biennalist has been actived at the  Istanbul Biennale 2007 / Venice Biennale 1999+2001+2003+2005+2007+2009+2011 2013   +2015  +2017 / Athens Biennales 2007 +2011 / Sydney Biennales 2010 / Berlin Biennale 2006 + 2010 +2014 ++2018  /Sarema Biennale 1997 / Rotterdam Biennale 1990 / Uturn Quadriennale 2008 / Manifesta Murcia , Manifesta Palermo and Liverpool Biennial 2010   questioning the official Biennale themes  :exemple "
Optimism in the Age of Global War",   'Think with the senses - feel with the mind ",'Destroy Athens' " Making world ""In dialogue with Northern Africa "etc ....  Biennalist was very active  at dOCUMENTA Kassel   ./ Biennalist exhibition was done at the  ZKM museum exhibition in  Karlruhe , and Akademie der Kunst Berlin .  . Biennalist is also interest in art fairs  (often behaving like Biennales )  art work were done during Frieze ; Fiac , Berlin ,  Armory , Chart Berlin ...yearly Climate conference are also considered as staged events  ( Cop 15 / Cop 16 etc...) . Venice Biennale 2011 was teamed up with Sprengel Museum Hannover "Photography Calling "  ( link )  ,and Biennalist at Athens Biennale 2011 was commissionned byZKM Museum  . In 2017 Biennalist was pulsing simultaniously at gallery Sabsay . documenta Athens and Kassel  + Venice 2017 ( #documentasceptic ) .Biennalist has been commissionned to work critically at the Liverpool Biennale , Venice Biennale ( Maldives pavilion ), Manifesta  , Iceland  . We are preparing other Biennales ( including Venice and Istanbul  Biennale 2018 )    and if  you like to support us  or be partner etc.... contact  also donate here . You can also collect  art works from Biennalist .

News         Reviews     Photos for press use        fb updates =  fan        Art formats by Thierry Geoffroy / Colonel   

Biennalist is an art format by French-Danish artist Thierry Geoffroy/ Colonel.

The format is a concurrent commentary on the themes of biennales.Biennalists are intent on investigating the themes or titles of art biennales/ other cultural events, and in doing so, questions the conceptual value and content of the exhibition, with a naivety that serves to expose weakness and discrepancies between the intentions of Biennale's themes and the resulting Biennales. Biennalists attend the Biennales and 'test' their propositions while they are ongoing, in the form of "guerrilla-style actions", debates, and interventions on-site.These actions often bring to light financial or political motivations behind the Biennale.The format often converges with other formats of Geoffroy's, such as Emergency Room or the Awareness Muscle. Biennalist has been activated at the Venice Biennale since 1999, Rotterdam Biennale 1990, Uturn Quadriennale 2008, Istanbul Biennale 2007 and the Athens Biennales 2007 and 2011; the Sydney Biennale 2010 and the Berlin Biennale in 2006, 2010, 2014 and 2018.[5] It has also been activated on invitation at the Sarema Biennale 1997, Casablanca Biennale 2018, Manifesta Murcia , Manifesta Palermo and Liverpool Biennial 2010.

Biennalist can be seen as a way to question the structure of the Biennale. Biennales attract a huge wealth of artists and curators from influential institutions and often associate themselves with progressive, critical themes that seem to engage with the predominant humanitarian and societal issues. Biennalist questions the legitimacy of these themes and what function the artists have within these frames, investigating whether the Biennale is as concerned with these issues as they portray themselves to be. Biennalist is often an organised team effort, with artists and curators being "recruited" by Geoffroy.Biennalist is seen as a necessary format, a slogan attached to the format is "There is not a good biennale without Biennalist."


There are a great range in Biennalist actions, often they are of an improvisational or guerrilla tactical nature.Geoffroy describes embarrassment and awkwardness as having an awareness activating quality to them,and Biennalist actions can be seen as possessing a deliberate "uncoolness", provocative to the chic, curated presentations of artwork found in Biennales. There is a quality of defying the elite and distanced nature of art output that Biennales possess, which have become more of a networking platform in recent years. One example of a Biennalist intervention is 'Penetration', here Geoffroy will ask artists if they want to share their space with another artist, sometimes Geoffroy himself gives the space or asks someone else to exhibit his work in their space.A specific example of this took place at Manifesta 8 in Murcia. This biennale had the theme, "A Dialogue with North Africa" and yet only 7 of the 116 participating artists were from North Africa.Geoffroy who was invited and had been given an old prison cell to exhibit his work in, turned this into a penetration space and offered it to any North African artist who wished to exhibit their artwork at the biennale.Biennalist was also activated at the Athens Biennale 2010, as part of a exhibition on Biennalist with the ZKM museum, in the form of Geoffroy recording his interventions on-location, including exploring the intentions of the biennale by interviewing the lead curators of the Biennale, including Nicolas Bourriaud.

Venice Biennale

At the 55th Venice Biennale in 2013, Geoffroy was given space in the Zimbabwe Pavilion and was part of the Maldives pavilion representations.For the Maldives pavilion, he used one of his famous tent artworks to question the response to climate change, something of particular relevance in the context of the Maldives, whose low land levels risk going underwater due to rising sea levels. He also made use of the Emergency Room Mobile format (a moving variation of the Emergency Room format), to pose the question, "can emergencies be ranked?". He also got permission to place a tent in-between the Israeli and USA pavilions, with the statement "Can a nation welcome another nation” spraypainted on it.

During a previous Venice Biennale, Geoffroy organised events such as the Curator Lifting Running Competition, where Geoffroy invited artists to race with curators on their backs, as a way to question the hierarchy between artist and curators in such events.Another example is called Rumeur, which involves participants speaking loudly on their mobile phones or in person to one another, in crowded locations in the Biennales, speaking of made up parties and art events, in order to circulate humourous misinformation.


Biennalist has been active at Documenta Kassel and Athens. Through the placing of tent artworks, as well as by engaging art critics, curators, artists and visitors in conversation and debate, Geoffroy questions Documenta's purpose and role, specifically in reference to its relationship to the weapon industry. He has also questioned their strategy in hosting Documenta in other locations, such as Athens and Kabul.Some statements on the tents include "The next Documenta should be curated by tanks", "I am not working for the tourism office" and most famously, "The Emergency will replace the Contemporary", which was removed from the front of the Fridericianum by Documenta.Biennalist also points out the "Botox effect" of Documenta, how an event can seem to be socio-politically conscious but causes a distracting effect from actual issues. One of these tents, "The Emergency will replace the Contemporary" was bought by the Kunsthalle Mannheim and is part of their permanent collection It was exhibited in front of the Edouard Manet painting, "The Execution of Emperor Maximilian", a painting which Geoffroy has often used as an example of the artist being "too late", depicting the accident.

own by

ABBOUD, Jumana Emil .ABDESSEMED, Adel .ABONNENC, Mathieu Kleyebe
AL SOLH, Mounira ALGÜN RINGBORG, Meriç ALLORA, Jennifer & CALZADILLA, Guillermo
BESHTY, Walead BHABHA, Huma BOLTANSKI, Christian
BOYD, Daniel BREY, Ricardo BROODTHAERS, Marcel BRUGUERA, Tania
BURGA, Teresa CALHOUN, Keith & McCORMICK, Chandra CAO, Fei
HIRSCHHORN, Thomas HÖLLER, Carsten HOLT, Nancy & SMITHSON, Robert
IM, Heung Soon INVISIBLE BORDERS: Trans-African Photographers ISHIDA, Tetsuya
JI, Dachun JULIEN, Isaac K., Hiwa KAMBALU, Samson KIM, Ayoung
MALJKOVIC, David MAN, Victor MANSARAY, Abu Bakarr MARKER, Chris
MARSHALL, Kerry James MARTEN, Helen MAURI, Fabio McQUEEN, Steve
MUTU, Wangechi NAM, Hwayeon NAUMAN, Bruce NDIAYE, Cheikh NICOLAI, Olaf
OFILI, Chris OGBOH, Emeka PARRENO, Philippe PASCALI, Pino PIPER, Adrian
(NARULA, Monica; BAGCHI, Jeebesh; SENGUPTA, Shuddhabrata) REYNAUD-DEWAR, Lili
SENGHOR, Fatou Kand SHETTY, Prasad & GUPTE, Rupal SIBONY, Gedi
TIRAVANIJA, Rirkrit TOGUO, Barthélémy XU, Bing YOUNIS, Ala

Albanian Trilogy: A Series of Devious Stratagems
Armando Lulaj
Commissioner: Ministry of Culture. Curator: Marco Scotini. Deputy Curator: Andris Brinkmanis. Venue: Pavilion at Arsenale
Inner Landscapes
Roqué, Joan Xandri
Commissioner: Henry Périer. Deputy Commissioner: Joana Baygual, Sebastià Petit, Francesc Rodríguez
Curator: Paolo de Grandis, Josep M. Ubach. Venue: Spiazzi, Castello 3865
On Ways of Travelling
António Ole, Binelde Hyrcan, Délio Jasse, Francisco Vidal, Nelo Teixeira
Commissioner: Ministry of Culture, Rita Guedes Tavares. Curator: António Ole. Deputy Curator: Antonia Gaeta. Venue: Conservatorio Benedetto Marcello - Palazzo Pisani, San Marco 2810
The Uprising of Form
Juan Carlos Diste´fano
Commissioner: Magdalena Faillace. Curator: Mari´a Teresa Constantin. Venue: Pavilion at Arsenale – Sale d’Armi
 ARMENIA, Republic of
Armenity / Haiyutioun
Haig Aivazian, Lebanon; Nigol Bezjian, Syria/USA; Anna Boghiguian Egypt/Canada; Hera Büyüktasçiyan, Turkey; Silvina Der-Meguerditchian, Argentina/Germany; Rene Gabri & Ayreen Anastas, Iran/Palestine/USA; Mekhitar Garabedian, Belgium; Aikaterini Gegisian, Greece; Yervant Gianikian & Angela Ricci Lucchi, Italy; Aram Jibilian, USA; Nina Katchadourian, USA/Finland; Melik Ohanian, France; Mikayel Ohanjanyan, Armenia/Italy; Rosana Palazyan, Brazil; Sarkis, Turkey/France; Hrair Sarkissian, Syria/UK
Commissioner: Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Armenia. Deputy Commissioner: Art for the World, Mekhitarist Congregation of San Lazzaro Island,  Embassy of the Republic of Armenia in Italy, Vartan Karapetian. Curator: Adelina Cüberyan von Fürstenberg. Venue: Monastery and Island of San Lazzaro degli Armeni
Fiona Hall: Wrong Way Time
Fiona Hall
Commissioner: Simon Mordant AM. Deputy Commissioner: Charles Green. Curator: Linda Michael. Scientific Committee: Simon Mordant AM, Carolyn Christov-Bakargiev, Max Delany, Rachel Kent, Danie Mellor, Suhanya Raffel, Leigh Robb. Venue: Pavilion at Giardini
Heimo Zobernig
Commissioner: Yilmaz Dziewior. Curator: Yilmaz Dziewior. Scientific Committee: Friends of the Venice Biennale. Venue: Pavilion at Giardini
 AZERBAIJAN, Republic of
Beyond the Line
Ashraf Murad, Javad Mirjavadov, Tofik Javadov, Rasim Babayev, Fazil Najafov, Huseyn Hagverdi, Shamil Najafzada
Commissioner: Heydar Aliyev Foundation. Curators: de Pury de Pury, Emin Mammadov. Venue: Palazzo Lezze, Campo S.Stefano, San Marco 2949
 Vita Vitale
Edward Burtynsky, Mircea Cantor, Loris Cecchini, Gordon Cheung, Khalil Chishtee, Tony Cragg, Laura Ford, Noemie Goudal, Siobhán Hapaska, Paul Huxley, IDEA laboratory and Leyla Aliyeva, Chris Jordan with Rebecca Clark and Helena S.Eitel, Tania Kovats, Aida Mahmudova, Sayyora Muin, Jacco Olivier, Julian Opie, Julian Perry, Mike Perry, Bas Princen, Stephanie Quayle, Ugo Rondinone, Graham Stevens, Diana Thater, Andy Warhol, Bill Woodrow, Erwin Wurm, Rose Wylie
Commissioner: Heydar Aliyev Foundation. Curators: Artwise: Susie Allen, Laura Culpan, Dea Vanagan. Venue: Ca’ Garzoni, San Marco 3416
 BELARUS, Republic of
War Witness Archive
Konstantin Selikhanov
Commissioner: Natallia Sharanhovich. Deputy Commissioners: Alena Vasileuskaya, Kamilia Yanushkevich. Curators: Aleksei Shinkarenko, Olga Rybchinskaya. Scientific Committee:  Dmitry Korol, Daria Amelkovich, Julia Kondratyuk, Sergei Jeihala, Sheena Macfarlane, Yuliya Heisik, Hanna Samarskaya, Taras Kaliahin, Aliaksandr Stasevich. Venue: Riva San Biagio, Castello 2145
Personnes et les autres
Vincent Meessen and Guests, Mathieu K. Abonnenc, Sammy Baloji, James Beckett, Elisabetta Benassi, Patrick Bernier & Olive Martin, Tamar Guimara~es & Kasper Akhøj, Maryam Jafri, Adam Pendleton
Commissioner: Wallonia-Brussels Federation and Wallonia-Brussels International. Curator: Katerina Gregos. Venue: Pavilion at Giardini
"Costa Rica, Paese di pace, invita a un linguaggio universale d'intesa tra i popoli".
Andrea Prandi, Beatrice Gallori, Beth Parin, Biagio Schembari, Carla Castaldo, Celestina Avanzini, Cesare Berlingeri, Erminio Tansini, Fabio Capitanio, Fausto Beretti, Giovan Battista Pedrazzini, Giovanni Lamberti, Giovanni Tenga, Iana Zanoskar, Jim Prescott, Leonardo Beccegato, Liliana Scocco, Lucia Bolzano, Marcela Vicuna, Marco Bellagamba, Marco Lodola, Maria Gioia dell’Aglio, Mario Bernardinello, Massimo Meucci, Nacha Piattini, Omar Ronda, Renzo Eusebi, Tita Patti, Romina Power, Rubens Fogacci, Silvio di Pietro, Stefano Sichel, Tino Stefanoni, Ufemia Ritz, Ugo Borlenghi, Umberto Mariani, Venere Chillemi, Jacqueline Gallicot Madar, Massimo Onnis, Fedora Spinelli
Commissioner: Ileana Ordonez Chacon. Curator: Gregorio Rossi. Venue: Palazzo Bollani
Studies on Shivering: The Third Degree
Damir Ocko
Commissioner: Ministry of Culture. Curator: Marc Bembekoff. Venue: Palazzo Pisani, S. Marina
El artista entre la individualidad y el contexto
Lida Abdul, Celia-Yunior, Grethell Rasúa, Giuseppe Stampone, LinYilin, Luis Edgardo Gómez Armenteros, Olga Chernysheva, Susana Pilar Delahante Matienzo
Commissioner: Miria Vicini. Curators: Jorge Fernández Torres, Giacomo Zaza. Venue: San Servolo Island
 CYPRUS, Republic of
Two Days After Forever
Christodoulos Panayiotou
Commissioner: Louli Michaelidou. Deputy Commissioner: Angela Skordi. Curator: Omar Kholeif. Deputy Curator: Daniella Rose King. Venue: Palazzo Malipiero, Sestiere San Marco 3079
 CZECH Republic and SLOVAK Republic
Jirí David
Commissioner: Adam Budak. Deputy Commissioner: Barbara Holomkova. Curator: Katarina Rusnakova. Venue: Pavilion at Giardini
Gold Water: Apocalyptic Black Mirrors
Maria Veronica Leon Veintemilla in collaboration with Lucia Vallarino Peet
Commissioner: Andrea Gonzàlez Sanchez. Deputy Commissioner: PDG Arte Communications. Curator: Ileana Cornea. Deputy Curator: Maria Veronica Leon Veintemilla. Venue: Istituto Santa Maria della Pietà, Castello 3701
NSFW. From the Abyss of History
Jaanus Samma
Commissioner: Maria Arusoo. Curator: Eugenio Viola. Venue: Palazzo Malipiero, campo San Samuele, San Marco 3199
Ahmed Abdel Fatah, Gamal Elkheshen, Maher Dawoud
Commissioner: Hany Al Ashkar. Curator: Ministry of Culture. Venue: Pavilion at Giardini
FINLAND (Pavilion Alvar Aalto)
Hours, Years, Aeons
Commissioner: Frame Visual Art Finland, Raija Koli. Curator: Taru Elfving. Deputy Curator: Anna Virtanen. Venue: Pavilion at Giardini  FRANCE
Céleste Boursier-Mougenot
Commissioner: Institut français, with Ministère de la Culture et de la Communication. Curator: Emma Lavigne. Venue: Pavilion at Giardini
Crawling Border
Rusudan Gobejishvili Khizanishvili, Irakli Bluishvili, Dimitri Chikvaidze, Joseph Sabia
Commissioner: Ana Riaboshenko. Curator: Nia Mgaloblishvili. Venue: Pavilion at Arsenale – Sale d’Armi
Jasmina Metwaly / Philip Rizk, Olaf Nicolai, Hito Steyerl, Tobias Zielony
Commissioner: ifa (Institut für Auslandsbeziehungen) on behalf of the Federal Foreign Office. Deputy Commissioner: Elke aus dem Moore, Nina Hülsmeier. Curator: Florian Ebner. Deputy Curator: Tanja Milewsky, Ilina Koralova. Venue: Pavilion at Giardini
Sarah Lucas
Commissioner: Emma Dexter. Curator: Richard Riley. Deputy Curator: Katrina Schwarz. Venue: Pavilion at Giardini
Present Nearness
Oliver Benoit, Maria McClafferty, Asher Mains, Francesco Bosso and Carmine Ciccarini, Guiseppe Linardi
Commissioner: Ministry of Culture. Deputy Commissioner: Susan Mains. Curator: Susan Mains. Deputy Curator: Francesco Elisei. Venue: Opera don Orione Artigianelli, Sala Tiziano, Fondamenta delle Zattere ai Gesuati, Dorsoduro 919
Why Look at Animals? AGRIMIKÁ.
Maria Papadimitriou
Commissioner: Hellenic Ministry of Culture, Education and Religious Affairs. Curator: Gabi Scardi. Deputy Curator: Alexios Papazacharias. Venue: Pavilion at Giardini
So much that it doesn't fit here
Antonio Manuel, André Komatsu, Berna Reale
Commissioner: Luis Terepins. Curator: Luiz Camillo Osorio. Deputy Curator: Cauê Alves. Venue: Pavilion at Giardini
Commissioner: National Gallery of Canada, Marc Mayer. Deputy Commissioner: National Gallery of Canada, Yves Théoret. Curator: Marie Fraser. Venue: Pavilion at Giardini
Poéticas de la disidencia | Poetics of dissent: Paz Errázuriz - Lotty Rosenfeld
Paz Errázuriz, Lotty Rosenfeld
Commissioner: Antonio Arèvalo. Deputy Commissioner: Juan Pablo Vergara Undurraga. Curator: Nelly Richard. Venue: Pavilion at Arsenale  - Artiglierie
 CHINA, People’s Republic of
Other Future
LIU Jiakun, LU Yang, TAN Dun, WEN Hui/Living Dance Studio, WU Wenguang/Caochangdi Work Station
Commissioner: China Arts and Entertainment Group, CAEG. Deputy Commissioners: Zhang Yu, Yan Dong. Curator: Beijing Contemporary Art Foundation. Scientific Committee: Fan Di’an, Zhang Zikang, Zhu Di, Gao Shiming, Zhu Qingsheng, Pu Tong, Shang Hui. Venue: Pavilion at Arsenale – Giardino delle Vergini
Sweet Death
Emma Anticoli Borza, Sabrina Bertolelli, Mariadolores Castellanos, Max Leiva, Pier Domenico Magri, Adriana Montalto, Elmar Rojas (Elmar René Rojas Azurdia), Paolo Schmidlin, Mónica Serra, Elsie Wunderlich, Collettivo La Grande Bouffe
Commissioner: Daniele Radini Tedeschi. Curators: Stefania Pieralice, Carlo Marraffa, Elsie Wunderlich. Deputy Curators: Luciano Carini, Simone Pieralice. Venue: Officina delle Zattere, Dorsoduro 947, Fondamenta Nani
Commissioner: Card. Gianfranco Ravasi, Presidente del Pontificio Consiglio della Cultura. Venue: Pavilion at Arsenale – Sale d’Armi
Sustainable Identities
Szilárd Cseke
Commissioner: Monika Balatoni. Deputy Commissioner: István Puskás, Sándor Fodor, Anna Karády. Curator: Kinga German. Venue: Pavilion at Giardini
Christoph Büchel
Commissioner: Björg Stefánsdóttir. Curator: Nína Magnúsdóttir. Venue: to be confirmed
 INDONESIA, Republic of
Komodo Voyage
Heri Dono
Commissioner: Sapta Nirwandar. Deputy Commissioner: Soedarmadji JH Damais. Curator: Carla Bianpoen, Restu Imansari Kusumaningrum. Scientific Committee: Franco Laera, Asmudjo Jono Irianto, Watie Moerany, Elisabetta di Mambro. Venue: Venue: Arsenale
Iranian Highlights
Samira Alikhanzaradeh, Mahmoud Bakhshi Moakhar, Jamshid Bayrami, Mohammed Ehsai
 The Great Game
Lida Abdul, Bani Abidi, Adel Abidin, Amin Agheai, Ghodratollah Agheli, Shahriar Ahmadi, Parastou Ahovan, Farhad Ahrarnia, Rashad Alakbarov, Nazgol Ansarinia, Reza Aramesh, Alireza Astaneh, Sonia Balassanian, Mahmoud Bakhshi, Moakhar Wafaa Bilal, Mehdi Farhadian, Monir Farmanfarmaian, Shadi Ghadirian, Babak Golkar, Shilpa Gupta, Ghasem Hajizadeh, Shamsia Hassani, Sahand Hesamiyan, Sitara Ibrahimova, Pouran Jinchi, Amar Kanwar, Babak Kazemi, Ryas Komu, Ahmad Morshedloo, Farhad Moshiri, Mehrdad Mohebali, Huma Mulji, Azad Nanakeli, Jamal Penjweny, Imran Qureshi, Sara Rahbar, Rashid Rana, T.V. Santhosh, Walid Siti, Mohsen Taasha Wahidi, Mitra Tabrizian, Parviz Tanavoli, Newsha Tavakolian, Sadegh Tirafkan, Hema Upadhyay, Saira Wasim
Commissioner: Majid Mollanooruzi. Deputy Commissioners: Marco Meneguzzo, Mazdak Faiznia. Curators: Marco Meneguzzo, Mazdak Faiznia. Venue: Calle San Giovanni 1074/B, Cannaregio
Commissioner: Ruya Foundation for Contemporary Culture in Iraq (RUYA). Deputy Commissioner: Nuova Icona - Associazione Culturale per le Arti. Curator: Philippe Van Cauteren. Venue: Ca' Dandolo, San Polo 2879
Adventure: Capital
Sean Lynch
Commissioner: Mike Fitzpatrick. Curator: Woodrow Kernohan. Venue: Pavilion at Arsenale - Artiglierie
Tsibi Geva | Archeology of the Present
Tsibi Geva
Commissioner: Arad Turgem, Michael Gov. Curator: Hadas Maor. Venue: Pavilion at Giardini
Ministero dei Beni e delle attività culturali e del turismo - Direzione Generale Arte e Architettura Contemporanee e Periferie Urbane. Commissioner: Federica Galloni. Curator: Vincenzo Trione. Venue: Padiglione Italia, Tese delle Vergini at Arsenale
The Key in the Hand
Chiharu Shiota
Commissioner: The Japan Foundation. Deputy Commissioner: Yukihiro Ohira, Manako Kawata and Haruka Nakajima. Curator: Hitoshi Nakano. Venue : Pavilion at Giardini
Creating Identities
Yvonne Apiyo Braendle-Amolo, Qin Feng, Shi Jinsong, Armando Tanzini, Li Zhanyang, Lan Zheng Hui, Li Gang, Double Fly Art Center
Commissioner: Paola Poponi. Curator: Sandro Orlandi Stagl. Deputy Curator: Ding Xuefeng. Venue: San Servolo Island
KOREA, Republic of
The Ways of Folding Space & Flying
MOON Kyungwon & JEON Joonho
Commissioner: Sook-Kyung Lee. Curator: Sook-Kyung Lee. Venue: Pavilion at Giardini
KOSOVO, Republic of
Speculating on the blue
Flaka Haliti
Commissioner: Ministry of Culture, Youth and Sports. Curator: Nicolaus Schafhausen. Deputy Curator: Katharina Schendl. Venue: Pavilion at Arsenale - Artiglierie
Katrina Neiburga, Andris Eglitis
Commissioner: Solvita Krese (Latvian Centre for Contemporary Art). Deputy Commissioner: Kitija Vasiljeva. Curator: Kaspars Vanags. Venue: Pavilion at Arsenale

Dainius Liškevicius
Commissioner: Vytautas Michelkevicius. Deputy Commissioner: Rasa Antanaviciute. Curator: Vytautas Michelkevicius. Venue: Palazzo Zenobio, Fondamenta del Soccorso 2569, Dorsoduro
LUXEMBOURG, Grand Duchy of
Paradiso Lussemburgo
Filip Markiewicz
Commissioner: Ministry of Culture. Deputy Commissioner: MUDAM Luxembourg. Curator: Paul Ardenne. Venue: Cà Del Duca, Corte del Duca Sforza, San Marco 3052
MACEDONIA, Former Yugoslavian Republic of
We are all in this alone
Hristina Ivanoska and Yane Calovski
Commissioner: Maja Nedelkoska Brzanova, National Gallery of Macedonia. Deputy Commissioner: Olivija Stoilkova. Curator: Basak Senova. Deputy Curator: Maja Cankulovska Mihajlovska. Venue: Pavilion at Arsenale - Sale d’Armi
From One Citizen You Gather an Idea
Sultana Haukim, Nirmal Hurry, Alix Le Juge, Olga Jürgenson, Helge Leiberg, Krishna Luchoomun, Neermala Luckeenarain, Kavinash Thomoo, Bik Van Der Pol, Laure Prouvost, Vitaly Pushnitsky, Römer + Römer
Commissioner: pARTage. Curators: Alfredo Cramerotti, Olga Jürgenson. Venue: Palazzo Flangini - Canareggio 252
Possesing Nature
Tania Candiani, Luis Felipe Ortega
Commissioner: Tomaso Radaelli. Deputy Commissioner: Magdalena Zavala Bonachea. Curator: Karla Jasso. Venue: Pavilion at Arsenale – Sale d’Armi
Other Home
Enkhbold Togmidshiirev, Unen Enkh
Commissioner: Gantuya Badamgarav, MCASA. Curator: Uranchimeg Tsultemin. Scientific Committee: David A Ross, Boldbaatar Chultemin. Venue: European Cultural Centre - Palazzo Mora
,,Ti ricordi  Sjecaš li se  You Remember "
Aleksandar Duravcevic
Commissioner/Curator: Anastazija Miranovic. Deputy Commissioner: Danica Bogojevic. Venue: Palazzo Malipiero (piano terra), San Marco 3078-3079/A, Ramo Malipiero
MOZAMBIQUE, Republic of *
Theme: Coexistence of Tradition and Modernity in Contemporary Mozambique
Mozambique Artists
Commissioner: Joel Matias Libombo. Deputy Commissioner: Gilberto Paulino Cossa. Curator: Comissariado-Geral para a Expo Milano 2015. Venue: Pavilion at Arsenale
herman de vries - to be all ways to be
herman de vries
Commissioner: Mondriaan Fund. Curators: Colin Huizing, Cees de Boer. Venue: Pavilion ar Giardini
Secret Power
Simon Denny
Commissioner: Heather Galbraith. Curator: Robert Leonard. Venue: Biblioteca Nazionale Marciana, Marco Polo Airport
Camille Norment
Commissioner: OCA, Office for Contemporary Art Norway. Curator: Katya García-Antón. Deputy Curator: Antonio Cataldo. Venue: Pavilion at Giardini
Misplaced Ruins
Gilda Mantilla and Raimond Chaves
Commissioner: Armando Andrade de Lucio. Curator: Max Hernández-Calvo. Venue: Pavilion at Arsenale – Sale d’Armi
Tie a String Around the World
Manuel Conde, Carlos Francisco, Manny Montelibano, Jose Tence Ruiz
Commissioner: National Commission for Culture and the Arts (NCCA), Felipe M. de Leon Jr. Curator: Patrick D. Flores. Venue: European Cultural Centre - Palazzo Mora
Halka/Haiti. 18°48’05”N 72°23’01”W
C.T. Jasper, Joanna Malinowska
Commissioner: Hanna Wróblewska. Deputy Commissioner: Joanna Wasko. Curator: Magdalena Moskalewicz. Venue: Pavilion at Giardini
I Will Be Your Mirror / poems and problems
João Louro
Commissioner/Curator: María de Corral. Venue: Palazzo Loredan, campo S. Stefano
Adrian Ghenie: Darwin’s Room
Adrian Ghenie
Commissioner: Monica Morariu. Deputy Commissioner: Alexandru Damian. Curator: Mihai Pop. Venue: Pavilion at Giardini
Inventing the Truth. On Fiction and Reality
Michele Bressan, Carmen Dobre-Hametner, Alex Mirutziu, Lea Rasovszky, Stefan Sava, Larisa Sitar
Commissioner: Monica Morariu. Deputy Commissioner: Alexandru Damian. Curator: Diana Marincu. Deputy Curators: Ephemair Association (Suzana Dan and Silvia Rogozea). Venue: New Gallery of the Romanian Institute for Culture and Humanistic Research in Venice

The Green Pavilion
Irina Nakhova
Commissioner: Stella Kesaeva. Curator: Margarita Tupitsyn. Venue: Pavilion at Giardini
United Dead Nations
Ivan Grubanov
Commissioner: Lidija Merenik. Deputy Commissioner: Ana Bogdanovic. Curator: Lidija Merenik. Deputy Curator: Ana Bogdanovic. Scientific Committee: Jovan Despotovic. Venue: Pavilion at Giardini
Repubblica di San Marino “ Friendship Project “ China
Xu De Qi, Liu Dawei, Liu Ruo Wang, Ma Yuan, Li Lei, Zhang Hong Mei, Eleonora Mazza, Giuliano Giulianelli, Giancarlo Frisoni, Tony Margiotta, Elisa Monaldi, Valentina Pazzini
Commissioner: Istituti Culturali della Repubblica di San Marino. Curator: Vincenzo Sanfo. Venue: TBC
SEYCHELLES, Republic of *
A Clockwork Sunset
George Camille, Léon Wilma Loïs Radegonde
Commissioner: Seychelles Art Projects Foundation. Curators: Sarah J. McDonald, Victor Schaub Wong. Venue: European Cultural Centre - Palazzo Mora
Sea State
Charles Lim Yi Yong
Commissioner: Paul Tan, National Arts Council, Singapore. Curator: Shabbir Hussain Mustafa. Scientific Committee: Eugene Tan, Kathy Lai, Ahmad Bin Mashadi, June Yap, Emi Eu, Susie Lingham, Charles Merewether, Randy Chan. Venue: Pavilion at Arsenale – Sale d’Armi
SLOVENIA, Republic of
UTTER / The violent necessity for the embodied presence of hope
Commissioner: Simona Vidmar. Deputy Commissioner: Jure Kirbiš. Curators: Michele Drascek and Aurora Fonda. Venue: Pavilion at Arsenale - Artiglierie
Los Sujetos (The Subjects)
Pepo Salazar, Cabello/Carceller, Francesc Ruiz, + Salvador Dalí
Commissioner: Ministerio Asuntos Exteriores. Gobierno de España. Curator: Marti Manen. Venue: Pavilion at Giardini
Origini della civiltà
Narine Ali, Ehsan Alar, Felipe Cardeña, Fouad Dahdouh, Aldo Damioli, Svitlana Grebenyuk, Mauro Reggio, Liu Shuishi, Nass ouh Zaghlouleh, Andrea Zucchi, Helidon Xhixha
Commissioner: Christian Maretti. Curator: Duccio Trombadori. Venue: Redentore – Giudecca, San Servolo Island
Excavation of the Image: Imprint, Shadow, Spectre, Thought
Lina Selander
Commissioner: Ann-Sofi Noring. Curator: Lena Essling. Venue: Pavilion at Arsenale
Our Product
Pamela Rosenkranz
Commissioner: Swiss Arts Council Pro Helvetia, Sandi Paucic and Marianne Burki. Deputy-Commissioner: Swiss Arts Council Pro Helvetia, Rachele Giudici Legittimo. Curator: Susanne Pfeffer. Venue: Pavilion at Giardini
Earth, Air, Fire & Water
Kamol Tassananchalee
Commissioner: Chai Nakhonchai, Office of Contemporary Art and Culture (OCAC), Ministry of Culture. Curator: Richard David Garst. Deputy Curator: Pongdej Chaiyakut. Venue: Paradiso Gallerie, Giardini della Biennale, Castello 1260
Commissioner: Istanbul Foundation for Culture and Arts. Curator: Defne Ayas. Deputy Curator: Ozge Ersoy. Venue: Pavilion at Arsenale – Sale d’Armi
Crossing the Tide
Vincent J.F. Huang
Commissioner: Taukelina Finikaso. Deputy Commissioner: Temate Melitiana. Curator: Thomas J. Berghuis. Scientific Committee: Andrea Bonifacio. Venue: Pavilion at Arsenale
Yevgenia Belorusets, Nikita Kadan, Zhanna Kadyrova, Mykola Ridnyi & SerhiyZhadan, Anna Zvyagintseva, Open Group, Artem Volokitin
Commissioner: Ministry of Culture. Curator: Björn Geldhof. Venue: Riva dei Sette Martiri
1980 – Today: Exhibitions in the United Arab Emirates
Abdullah Al Saadi, Abdul Qader Al Rais, Abdulraheem Salim, Abdulrahman Zainal, Ahmed Al Ansari, Ahmed Sharif, Hassan Sharif, Mohamed Yousif, Mohammed Abdullah Bulhiah, Mohammed Al Qassab, Mohammed Kazem, Moosa Al Halyan, Najat Meky, Obaid Suroor, Salem Jawhar
Commissioner: Salama bint Hamdan Al Nahyan Foundation. Curator: Hoor Al Qasimi. Venue: Pavilion at Arsenale – Sale d'Armi

Joan Jonas: They Come to Us Without a Word
Joan Jonas
Commissioner: Paul C. Ha. Deputy Commissioner: MIT List Visual Arts Center. Curators: Ute Meta Bauer, Paul C. Ha. Venue: Pavilion at Giardini
Global Myopia II (Pencil & Paper)
Marco Maggi
Commissioner: Ricardo Pascale. Curator: Patricia Bentancour. Venue: Pavilion at Giardini
VENEZUELA, Bolivarian Republic of
Te doy mi palabra (I give you my word)
Argelia Bravo, Félix Molina (Flix)
Commissioner: Oscar Sotillo Meneses. Deputy Commissioner: Reinaldo Landaeta Díaz. Curator: Oscar Sotillo Meneses. Deputy Curator: Morella Jurado. Scientific Committee: Carlos Pou Ruan. Venue: Pavilion at Giardini
ZIMBABWE, Republic of
Pixels of Ubuntu/Unhu: - Exploring the social and cultural identities of the 21st century.
Chikonzero Chazunguza, Masimba Hwati, Gareth Nyandoro
Commissioner: Doreen Sibanda. Curator: Raphael Chikukwa. Deputy Curator: Tafadzwa Gwetai. Scientific Committee: Saki Mafundikwa, Biggie Samwanda, Fabian Kangai, Reverend Paul Damasane, Nontsikelelo Mutiti, Stephen Garan'anga,  Dominic Benhura. Venue: Santa Maria della Pieta
Voces Indígenas
Commissioner: Sylvia Irrazábal. Curator: Alfons Hug. Deputy Curator: Alberto Saraiva. Venue: Pavilion at Arsenale
Sofia Medici and Laura Kalauz
Sonia Falcone and José Laura Yapita
Adriana Barreto
Paulo Nazareth
Rainer Krause
León David Cobo,
María Cristina Rincón and Claudia Rodríguez
Priscilla Monge
Fabiano Kueva
Mauricio Kabistan
Sandra Monterroso
Barbara Prézeau Stephenson
Leonardo González
Humberto Vélez
Raúl Quintanilla
Erika Meza
Javier López
José Huamán Turpo
Gustavo Tabares
Ellen Slegers

001 Inverso Mundus. AES+F
Magazzino del Sale n. 5, Dorsoduro, 265 (Fondamenta delle Zattere ai Saloni); Palazzo Nani Mocenigo, Dorsoduro, 960
May 9th – October 31st
Organization: VITRARIA Glass + A Museum
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Catalonia in Venice: Singularity
Cantieri Navali, Castello, 40 (Calle Quintavalle)
May 9th - November 22nd
Organization: Institut Ramon Llull
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Conversion. Recycle Group
Chiesa di Sant’Antonin, Castello (Campo Sant’Antonin)
May 6th - October 31st
Organization: Moscow Museum of Modern Art
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Palazzo Contarini-Polignac, Dorsoduro, 874 (Accademia)
May 7th – August 15th
Organization: The Boghossian Foundation
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Palazzo Donà Brusa, Campo San Polo, 2177
May 9th - November 22nd
Organization: European Capital of Culture Wroclaw 2016
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EM15 presents Doug Fishbone’s Leisure Land Golf
Arsenale Docks, Castello, 40A, 40B, 41C
May 6th - July 26th
Organization: EM15
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Eredità e Sperimentazione
Grand Hotel Hungaria & Ausonia, Viale Santa Maria Elisabetta, 28, Lido di Venezia
May 9th - November 22nd
Organization: Istituto Nazionale di BioArchitettura - Sezione di Padova
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Frontiers Reimagined
Palazzo Grimani, Castello, 4858 (Ramo Grimani)
May 9th - November 22nd
Organization: Tagore Foundation International; Polo museale del Veneto
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Glasstress 2015 Gotika
Istituto Veneto di Scienze Lettere ed Arti, Palazzo Cavalli Franchetti, San Marco, 2847 (Campo Santo Stefano); Chiesa di Santa Maria della Visitazione, Centro Culturale Don Orione Artigianelli, Dorsoduro, 919 (Zattere); Fondazione Berengo, Campiello della Pescheria, 15, Murano;
May 9th — November 22nd
Organization: The State Hermitage Museum
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Graham Fagen: Scotland + Venice 2015
Palazzo Fontana, Cannaregio, 3829 (Strada Nova)
May 9th - November 22nd
Organization: Scotland + Venice
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Grisha Bruskin. An Archaeologist’s Collection
Former Chiesa di Santa Caterina, Cannaregio, 4941-4942
May 6th – November 22nd
Organization: Centro Studi sulle Arti della Russia (CSAR), Università Ca’ Foscari Venezia
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Helen Sear, ... The Rest Is Smoke
Santa Maria Ausiliatrice, Castello, 450 (Fondamenta San Gioacchin)
May 9th - November 22nd
Organization: Cymru yn Fenis/Wales in Venice
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Highway to Hell
Palazzo Michiel, Cannaregio, 4391/A (Strada Nova)
May 9th - November 22nd
Organization: Hubei Museum of Art
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Humanistic Nature and Society (Shan-Shui) – An Insight into the Future
Palazzo Faccanon, San Marco, 5016 (Mercerie)
May 7th – August 4th
Organization: Shanghai Himalayas Museum
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In the Eye of the Thunderstorm: Effervescent Practices from the Arab World & South Asia
Dorsoduro, 417 (Zattere)
May 6th - November 15th
Organization: ArsCulture
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Italia Docet | Laboratorium- Artists, Participants, Testimonials and Activated Spectators
Palazzo Barbarigo Minotto, San Marco, 2504 (Fondamenta Duodo o Barbarigo)
May 9th – June 30th; September 11st – October 31st
Organization: Italian Art Motherboard Foundation (i-AM Foundation)
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Jaume Plensa: Together
Basilica di San Giorgio Maggiore, Isola di San Giorgio Maggiore
May 6th – November 22nd
Organization: Abbazia di San Giorgio Maggiore Benedicti Claustra Onlus
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Jenny Holzer "War Paintings"
Museo Correr, San Marco, 52 (Piazza San Marco)
May 6th – November 22nd
Organization: The Written Art Foundation; Museo Correr, Fondazione Musei Civici di Venezia
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Jump into the Unknown
Palazzo Loredan dell’Ambasciatore, Dorsoduro, 1261-1262
May 9th – June 18th
Organization: Nine Dragon Heads
Learn from Masters
Palazzo Bembo, San Marco, 4793 (Riva del Carbon)
May 9th – November 22nd
Organization: Pan Tianshou Foundation
My East is Your West
Palazzo Benzon, San Marco, 3927
May 6th  – October 31st
Organization: The Gujral Foundation
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Ornamentalism. The Purvitis Prize
Arsenale Nord, Tesa 99
May 9th – November 22nd
Organization: The Secretariat of the Latvian Presidency of the Council of the European Union in 2015
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Path and Adventure
Arsenale, Castello, 2126/A (Campo della Tana)
May 9th – November 22nd
Organization: The Civic and Municipal Affairs Bureau; The Macao Museum of Art; The Cultural Affairs Bureau
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Patricia Cronin: Shrine for Girls, Venice
Chiesa di San Gallo, San Marco, 1103 (Campo San Gallo)
May 9th – November 22nd
Organization: Brooklyn Rail Curatorial Projects
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Roberto Sebastian Matta. Sculture
Giardino di Palazzo Soranzo Cappello, Soprintendenza BAP per le Province di Venezia, Belluno, Padova e Treviso, Santa Croce, 770 (Fondamenta Rio Marin)
May 9th – November 22nd
Organization: Fondazione Echaurren Salaris
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Salon Suisse: S.O.S. Dada - The World Is A Mess
Palazzo Trevisan degli Ulivi, Dorsoduro, 810 (Campo Sant'Agnese)
May 9th; June 4th - 6th; September 10th - 12th; October 15th - 17th; November 19th – 21st
Organization: Swiss Arts Council Pro Helvetia
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Sean Scully: Land Sea
Palazzo Falier, San Marco, 2906
May 9th – November 22nd
Organization: Fondazione Volume!
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Sepphoris. Alessandro Valeri
Molino Stucky, interior atrium, Giudecca, 812
May 9th – November 22nd
Organization: Assessorato alla Cultura del Comune di Narni(TR); a Sidereal Space of Art; Satellite Berlin
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Tesla Revisited
Palazzo Nani Mocenigo, Dorsoduro, 960
May 9th – October 18th
Organization: VITRARIA Glass + A Museum
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The Bridges of Graffiti
Arterminal c/o Terminal San Basilio, Dorsoduro (Fondamenta Zattere al Ponte Lungo)
May 9th - November 22nd
Organization: Associazione Culturale Inossidabile
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The Dialogue of Fire. Ceramic and Glass Masters from Barcelona to Venice
Palazzo Tiepolo Passi, San Polo, 2774
May 6th - November 22nd
Organization: Fundaciò Artigas; ArsCulture
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The Question of Beings
Istituto Santa Maria della Pietà, Castello, 3701
May 9th - November 22nd
Organization: Museum of Contemporary Art, Taipei (MoCA, Taipei)
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The Revenge of the Common Place
Università Ca' Foscari, Ca' Bernardo, Dorsoduro, 3199 (Calle Bernardo)
May 9th – September 30th
Organization: Vrije Universiteit Brussel (Free University Brussels-VUB)
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The Silver Lining. Contemporary Art from Liechtenstein and other Microstates
Palazzo Trevisan degli Ulivi, Dorsoduro, 810 (Campo Sant'Agnese)
October 24th – November 1st
Organization: Kunstmuseum Liechtenstein
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The Sound of Creation. Paintings + Music by Beezy Bailey and Brian Eno
Conservatorio Benedetto Marcello, Palazzo Pisani, San Marco, 2810 (Campo Santo Stefano)
May 7th - November 22nd
Organization: ArsCulture
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The Union of Fire and Water
Palazzo Barbaro, San Marco, 2840
May 9th - November 22nd
Organization: YARAT Contemporary Art Organisation
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Thirty Light Years - Theatre of Chinese Art
Palazzo Rossini, San Marco, 4013 (Campo Manin)
May 9th - November 22nd
Organization: GAC Global Art Center Foundation; The Guangdong Museum of Art
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Tsang Kin-Wah: The Infinite Nothing, Hong Kong in Venice
Arsenale, Castello, 2126 (Campo della Tana)
May 9th - November 22nd
Organization: M+, West Kowloon Cultural District; Hong Kong Arts Development Council
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Under the Surface, Newfoundland and Labrador at Venice
Galleria Ca' Rezzonico, Dorsoduro, 2793
May 9th - November 22nd
Organization: Terra Nova Art Foundation
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Ursula von Rydingsvard
Giardino della Marinaressa, Castello (Riva dei Sette Martiri)
May 6th - November 22nd
Organization:Yorkshire Sculpture Park
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We Must Risk Delight: Twenty Artists from Los Angeles
Magazzino del Sale n. 3, Dorsoduro, 264 (Zattere)
May 7th - November 22nd
Organization: bardoLA
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Wu Tien-Chang: Never Say Goodbye
Palazzo delle Prigioni, Castello, 4209 (San Marco)
May 9th - November 22nd
Organization: Taipei Fine Arts Museum of Taiwan
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Istituto Santa Maria della Pietà, Castello, 3701
May 9th - November 22nd
Organization: Dream Amsterdam Foundation
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Universities and Associations that have joined the project
Sotheby’s Institute of Art, London / St Lucas University College of Art & Design, Antwerp / University of Washington - College of Arts & Sciences, Seattle / Iowa State University - College of Design, Ames / Universität für angewandte Kunst, Vienna
Venice International University / Università Ca’ Foscari, Venezia / Università Ca’ Foscari, Venezia - Dipartimento di Filosofia e Beni Culturali / Università IUAV di Venezia / Università Commerciale Luigi Bocconi, Milano - Dipartimento di Marketing / Accademia di Belle Arti di Brera, Milano - Ufficio Relazioni Internazionali. Erasmus Office / Politecnico di Milano - Scuola del Design. Laurea in Design degli Interni / Università di Roma Sapienza - Facoltà di Architettura / Associazione Cinemavvenire, Roma / Università per Stranieri di Perugia / Università per Stranieri di Siena

Central Pavilion at the Giardini (3,000 sq.m.) to the Arsenale
Bice Curiger Massimiliano Gioni
A Parliament for a Biennale
 Paolo Baratta, President of la Biennale di Venezia
Okwui Enwezor the ARENA Karl Marx’s Das Kapital
  Theaster Gates Chris Rehberger Joseph Haydn Cesare Paveset David Adjaye Olaf Nicolai Joana Hadjithomas and Khalil Joreige Marsilio Editori. emergency cinema.” Abounaddara
Mathieu KleyebeCharles Gaines’Jeremy Deller Jason Moran , venedig biennale biennial

other Biennale :(Biennials ) :

Venice Biennial , Documenta Havana Biennial,Istanbul Biennial ( Istanbuli),Biennale de Lyon ,Dak'Art Berlin Biennial,Mercosul Visual Arts Biennial ,Bienal do Mercosul Porto Alegre.,Berlin Biennial ,Echigo-Tsumari Triennial .Yokohama Triennial  Aichi Triennale,manifesta ,Copenhagen Biennale,Aichi Triennale
Yokohama Triennial,Echigo-Tsumari Triennial.Sharjah Biennial ,Biennale of Sydney, Liverpool , São Paulo Biennial ; Athens Biennale , Bienal do Mercosul ,Göteborg International Biennial for Contemporary Art
----artist d13 --

dOCUMENTA (13) - List of Artists
All the participants of the exhibition

The official list of dOCUMENTA (13) includes all the participants of the event (also the "Agents"). Here we list only those who are represented in the exhibition.


Lida Abdul
* 1973 Kabul, Afghanistan. Lives between Kabul and Los Angeles, USA.

Bani Abidi
* 1971 Karachi, Pakistan; lives there, and in New Delhi, India.

Etel Adnan
* 1925 Beirut, Lebanon. Lives in Sausalito /Cal., USA, and Paris, France.

Korbinian Aigner
* 1885 Hohenpolding, Germany.
+ 1966 Freising, Germany.
As a prisioner of the Nazis, he cultivated at the Dachau concentration camp seedlings, later called the Korbinian Apple.

Vyacheslav Akhunov
* 1948 Osh, Kyrgyzstan. Lives in Tashkent, Uzbekistan.

Barmak Akram
* 1966 Kabul, Afghanistan. Lives in Paris, France.

Khadim Ali
* 1978 Quetta, Pakistan (Afghan origin). Lives in Sydney, Australia.

Allora & Calzadilla
Jennifer Allora: * 1974 Philadelphia, USA.
Guillermo Calzadilla: * 1971 Havana, Cuba.
They live in Puerto Rico.

Maria Thereza Alves
* 1960 São Paulo, Brazil. Lives in Berlin, Germany, and Rome, Italy.

Francis Alÿs
* 1959 Antwerp, Belgium. Lives in Mexico City, Mexico.

Ayreen Anastas
* Bethlehem, Palestine. Lives in New York, USA.

Ayreen Anastas & Rene Gabri
A. Anastas: * Bethlehem, Palestine.
R. Gabri: * 1968 Tehran, Iran.
They live in New York, USA.

Ida Applebroog
* 1929 New York, USA.

Mohammad Yusuf Asefi
* 1961 Kabul, Afghanistan.

Doug Ashford
* 1958 Rabat, Morocco. Lives in New York, USA.

Tarek Atoui
* 1980 Beirut, Lebanon. Lives in Paris, France.

Kader Attia
* 1970 Dugny, France (Algerian origin). Lives in Berlin, Germany.


Bactrian Princesses
Small figurines, mostly female, made between the late third and early second millennia B.C. in an ancient civilization of western Central Asia, today Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and northern Afghanistan.

Nanni Balestrini
* 1935 Milan, Italy. Lives in Rome, Italy, and Paris, France.

Amy Balkin
* 1967 Baltimore, USA. Lives in San Francisco, USA.

Judith Barry
* 1954, Columbus, USA. Lives in New York, USA.

Massimo Bartolini
* 1962 Cecina, Italy; lives there.

Gianfranco Baruchello
* 1924 Livorno, Italy.

Ahmed Basiony
* 1978 Cairo, Egypt.
+ 2011 killed on 28 January during a demonstration on Tahrir Square, Cairo.

Thomas Bayrle
* 1937 Berlin. Germany. Lives in Frankfurt/Main, Germany.

Jérôme Bel
* 1964 France. Lives in Paris, France.

Gordon Bennett
* 1955 Monto/Queensland, Australia. Lives in Brisbane, Australia.

Rossella Biscotti
* 1978 Molfetta, Italy.

Manon de Boer
* 1966 Kodaicanal, India. Lives in Brussels, Belgium.

Alighiero Boetti
* 1940 Turin, Italy. Lived in Paris, France, and Kabul, Afghanistan.
+ 1994 Rome, Italy.

Anna Boghiguian
* 1946 Cairo, Egypt.

Carol Bove
* 1971 Geneva, Switzerland. Lives in New York, USA.

Kristina Buch
* 1983 Meerbusch, Germany. Lives in Düsseldorf, Germany.

Andrea Büttner
* 1972 Stuttgart, Germany. Lives in London, UK, and Frankfurt/Main, Germany.

Gerard Byrne
* 1969 Dublin, Ireland; lives there.


Artists' initiative, founded by Shaina Anand, Sanjay Bhangar and Ashok Sukumaran in Nov. 2007. Based in India.

Janet Cardiff & George Bures Miller
J. Cardiff: * 1957 Brussels, Canada.
G. Bures Miller: * 1960 Vegreville, Canada.
Live in Berlin, Germany, and Grindrod, Canada.

Emily Carr
1871 - 1945 Victoria, Canada.

Mariana Castillo Deball
* 1975 Mexico City, Mexico. Lives in Berlin, Germany.

Paul Chan
* 1973 Hong Kong, China. Lives in New York, USA.

Kudzanai Chiurai
* 1981 Harare, Zimbabwe. Lives in Johannesburg, South Africa.

Critical Art Ensemble
Formed in 1987 in Tallahassee/Florida, USA. Collective of tactical media practitioners of various specializations.

Abraham Cruzvillegas
* 1968 Mexico City, Mexico; lives there.

István Csákány
* 1978 Sepsiszentgyörgy, Romania. Lives in Budapest, Hungary.

Attila Csörgő
* 1965 Budapest, Hungary; lives there.

Antoni Cumella
* 1913 Granollers, Spain. + 1985.


Salvador Dalí
1904 - 1989 Figueres, Spain.

Tacita Dean
* 1965 Canterbury, U.K. Lives in Berlin, Germany.

Mark Dion
* 1961 New Bedford/MA, USA. Lives in New York, USA.

Thea Djordjadze
* 1971 Tiflis, Georgia. Lives in Berlin, Germany.

Willie Doherty
* 1959 Derry, Northern Ireland. Lives in County Donegal.

Trisha Donnelly
* 1974 San Francisco, USA; lives there.

Sam Durant
* 1961 Seattle, USA. Lives in Los Angeles, USA.

Jimmie Durham
* 1940 Washington, Arkansas, USA. Lives in Berlin, Germany, and Rome, Italy.


Daniel Gustav Cramer & Haris Epaminoda
D. G. Cramer: * 1975 Neuss, Germany. Lives in Berlin, Germany.
H. Epaminoda: * 1980 Nicosia, Cyprus. Lives in Berlin, Germany.

Cevdet Erek
* 1974 Istanbul, Turkey; lives there.


Faivovich & Goldberg
Guillermo Faivovich: * 1977 Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Nicolás Goldberg: * 1978 Paris, France.
They live in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Matias Faldbakken
* 1973 Hobro, Denmark. Lives in Oslo, Norway.

Geoffrey Farmer
* 1967 British Columbia, Canada. Lives in Vancouver, Canada.

Omer Fast
* 1972 Jerusalem, Israel. Lives in Berlin, Germany.

Lara Favaretto
* 1973 Treviso, Italy. Lives in Turin, Italy.

Ceal Floyer
* 1968 Karachi, Pakistan (British origin). Lives in Berlin, Germany.

Llyn Foulkes
* 1934 Yakima, Washington, USA. Lives in Los Angeles, USA.

Abul Qasem Foushanji
* 1987 Herat, Afghanistan. Lives in Kabul, Afghanistan.

Chiara Fumai
* 1978 Rome, Italy. Lives in Milan, Italy.


Rene Gabri
* 1968 Tehran, Iran. Lives in New York, USA.

Ryan Gander
* 1976 Chester, UK. Lives in London, UK.

Dora García
* 1965 Valladolid, Spain. Lives in Barcelona, Spain.

Mario García Torres
* 1975 Monclova, Mexico. Lives in Mexico City, Mexico.

Theaster Gates
* 1973 Chicago, USA; lives there.

Jeanno Gaussi
* 1973 Kabul, Afghanistan. Lives in Berlin, Germany.

Mariam Ghani
* 1978 New York, USA; lives there. Afghan/Lebanese background.

Symrin Gill
* 1959 Singapore. Lives in Sydney, Australia, and Port Dickson, Malaysia.

Julio González
* 1876 Barcelona, Spain.
+ 1942 Arcueil, France.


Zainab Haidary
* 1990 Kabul, Afghanistan; lives there.

Fiona Hall
* 1953 Sydney, Australia. Lives in Adelaide, Australia.

Florian Hecker
* 1975 Augsburg, Germany. Lives in Kissing, Germany, and Vienna, Austria.

Tamara Henderson
* 1982 Sackville, Canada. Lives in Stockholm, Sweden.

Susan Hiller
* 1940 Tallahassee, Florida, USA. Lives in London, UK.

Horst Hoheisel
* 1944 Poznań, Poland. Lives in Kassel, Germany.

Judith Hopf
* 1969 Karlsruhe, Germany. Lives in Berlin, Germany.

Khaled Hourani
with Amjad Ghannam & Rashid Masharawi
K. Hourani: * 1965 Hebron, Palestine. Lives in Ramallah, Palestine.

Pierre Huyghe
* 1962 Paris, France.


Sanja Iveković
* 1949 Zagreb, Croatia; lives there.


Emily Jacir
* 1970 Bethlehem, Palestine. Lives in Ramallah, Palestine, and New York, USA.

Toril Johannessen
* 1978 Norway. Lives in Bergen, Norway.

Joan Jonas
* 1936 New York, USA; lives there.

Brian Jungen
* 1970 Fort St. John, Canada. Lives in Vancouver, Canada.


Rudolf Kaesbach
* 1873 Mönchengladbach, Germany.
+ 1955 Berlin, Germany.

Robin Kahn
and La Cooperativa Unidad Nacional Mujeres Saharauis (The National Union of Women from Western Sahara)
Robin Kahn: * 1961 New York, USA; lives there.

Masood Kamandy
* 1981 Fort Collins, Colorado, USA (Afghan origin). Lives in Los Angeles, USA.

Amar Kanwar
* 1964 New Delhi, India; lives there.

William Kentridge
* 1955 Johannesburg, South Africa; lives there.

Hassan Khan
* 1975 London, UK. Lives in Cairo, Egypt.

Erkki Kurenniemi
* 1941 Hämeenlinna, Finland.


Adriana Lara
* 1978 Mexico City, Mexico; lives there.

Horacio Larrain Barros
* 1929 Santiago de Chile.

Dinh Q. Le
in collaboration with Vu Giang Huong, Quang Tho, Huynh Phuong Dong, Nguyen Thu, Truong Hieu, Phan Oanh, Nguyen Toan Thi, Duong Anh, Minh Phuong, Kim Tien, Quach Phong, Nguyen Thanh Chau.
* 1968 Ha-Tien, Vietnam. Lives in Los Angeles, USA, and Ho-Chi-Minh-City, Vietnam.

Gabriel Lester
* 1972 Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Lives there and in Shanghai, China.

David Link
* 1971 Düsseldorf, Germany. Lives in Cologne, Germany.

Maria Loboda
* 1979 Krakow, Poland. Lives in London, UK.

Mark Lombardi
* 1951 Syracuse, New York, USA. + 2000 New York.

Aníbal López
Alias A-1 53167. * 1964 Guatemala; lives there.

Renata Lucas
* 1971 Ribeirão Preto, Brazil. Lives in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Marcos Lutyens and Raimundas Malašauskas, featuring Sissel Tolaas
M. Lutyens: * 1964 London, UK. Lives in Los Angeles, USA.
R. Malašauskas: * 1973 Vilnius, Lithuania. Lives in Paris, France.
S. Tolaas: * 1963 Stavanger, Norway. Lives in Berlin, Germany.


Goshka Macuga
* 1967 Warsaw, Poland. Lives in London, UK.

Anna Maria Maiolino
* 1942 Scalea, Calabria, Italy. Lives in São Paulo, Brazil.

Nalini Malani
* 1946 Karachi, Pakistan. Lives in Mumbai, India.

Man Ray
* 1880 born as Emmanuel Radnitzky, Philadelphia, USA.
+ 1976 Paris, France.

Maria Martins
* 1894 Campanha, Brazil.
+ 1973 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Francesco Matarrese
* 1950 Molfetta, Italy.

Fabio Mauri
1926 - 2009 Rome, Italy.

Julie Mehretu
* 1970 Addis Abeba, Ethiopia. Lives in New York, USA.

John Menick
* 1976 White Plains, New York, USA.

Christoph Menke
* 1958 Cologne, Germany. Lives in Berlin, Germany.

Gustav Metzger
* 1926 Nuremberg, Germany.

Lee Miller
* 1907 Poughkeepsie, New York, USA.
+ 1977 Chiddingly, UK.

Aman Mojadidi
* 1971 Jacksonville, USA (Afghan origin). Lives in Kabul, Dubai, and Paris.

MOON Kyungwon & JEON Joonho
Moon K.: * 1969 Seoul, South Korea.
Jeon J.: * 1969 Busan, South Korea.
Live in Seoul, South Korea.

Gareth Moore
* 1975 Matsqui, Canada.

Giorgio Morandi
1890 - 1964 Bologna, Italy.

Rabih Mroué
* 1967 Beirut, Lebanon; lives there.

Zanele Muholi
* 1972 Umlazi, Durban, South Africa. Lives in Johannesburg, South Africa.

Christian Philipp Müller
* 1957 Biel, Switzerland. Lives in Kassel and Berlin, Germany.


M.A. Numminen
* 1940 Somero, Finland. Lives in Helsinki, Finland.


Objects damaged during the Lebanese Civil War (1975–90)

Shinro Ohtake
* 1955 Tokyo, Japan. Lives in Uwajima, Japan.

Rahraw Omarzad
* 1964 Kabul, Afghanistan; lives there.

Roman Ondák
* 1966 Žilina, Slovakia. Lives in Bratislava, Slovakia.

Füsun Onur
* 1938 Istanbul, Turkey; lives there.

The Otolith Group
Londonbased artist-led group, founded in 2002 by Anjalika Sagar and Kodwo Eshun.


Christodoulos Panayiotou
* 1978 Limassol, Cyprus. Lives there and in Paris, France.

Giuseppe Penone
* 1947 Garessio, Italy. Lives in Turin, Italy, and Paris, France.

Claire Pentecost
* 1956 Atlanta, USA. Lives in Chicago, USA.

Susan Philipsz
* 1965 Glasgow, Scotland, UK. Lives in Berlin, Germany.

Pratchaya Phinthong
* 1974 Bangkok,Thailand; lives there.

Sopheap Pich
* 1971 Koh Kralaw, Cambodia. Lives in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

Lea Porsager
* 1981 Denmark.

Michael Portnoy
* 1971 Washington, D.C. Lives in New York, USA.

Margaret Preston
* 1875 Adelaide, Australia.
+ 1963 Sydney, Australia.

Seth Price
* 1973 East Jerusalem, Palestine. Lives in New York, USA.

Ana Prvacki
* 1976 Serbia, Ex- Yugoslavia. Lives in Los Angeles, USA, and Singapore.


Walid Raad
* 1967 Chbanieh, Lebanon. Lives in Beirut, Lebanon, and New York, USA.

Michael Rakowitz
* 1973 Great Neck, NY, USA, (Iraqi background). Lives in Chicago, USA.

Araya Rasdjarmrearnsook
* 1957 Trad, Thailand. Lives in Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Doreen Reid Nakamarra
* mid-1950s near Warburton, Australia.
+ 2009 Adelaide, Australia.

Pedro Reyes
* 1972 Mexico City, Mexico; lives there.

Gunnar Richter
* 1953 Hamburg, Germany.

Stuart Ringholt
* 1971 Perth, Australia. Lives in Melbourne, Australia.

Ruth Robbins & Red Vaughan Tremmel
R. Robbins: * 1974, lives in Houston, USA.
R. Vaughan Tremmel: * 1970, lives in New Orleans, USA.

Juana Marta Rodas & Julia Isidrez
J. M. Rodas * 1925, her daughter Julia Isidrez * 1967, Paraguay. Both live in Itá, Paraguay.

Paul Ryan
* 1943 New York, USA.

Hannah Ryggen
* 1894 Sweden. + 1970 Ørland, Norway.

Aase Texmon Rygh
* 1925 Norway.


Natascha Sadr Haghighian
* 1967 Teheran, Iran. Lives in Berlin, Germany.

Anri Sala
* 1974 Tirana, Albania. Lives in Berlin, Germany.

Charlotte Salomon
* 1917 Berlin, Germany
+ 1943 murdered in Auschwitz.

Issa Samb
* 1945 Senegal. Lives in Dakar, Senegal. Alias Joe Ouakam.

Ines Schaber with Avery F. Gordon
I. Schaber lives in Berlin, Germany.

Tino Sehgal
* 1976 London, UK. Lives in Berlin, Germany.

Albert Serra
* 1975 Banyoles, Spain. Lives in Barcelona, Spain.

Tejal Shah
* 1979 Bhilai, India. Lives in Mumbai, India.

Wael Shawky
* 1971 Alexandria, Egypt; lives there.

Zolaykha Sherzad
* 1967 Kabul, Afghanistan. Lives in New York, USA, and Kabul.

Nedko Solakov
* 1957 Tcherven Briag, Bulgaria. Lives in Sofia, Bulgaria.

Song Dong
* 1966 Beijing, China; lives there.

Tamás St.Turba
* 1944 Fót, Hungary. Lives in Budapest, Hungary.

Alexandra Sukhareva
* 1983 Moscow, Russia; lives there.


Mika Taanila
* 1965 Helsinki, Finland; lives there.

Mohsen Taasha
* 1991 Kabul, Afghanistan; lives there.

Alexander Tarakhovsky
* 1955 Chernivtsi, Ukraine.

Javier Téllez
* 1969 Valencia, Venezuela. Lives in Berlin, Germany, and New York, USA.

Warwick Thornton
* 1970 Alice Springs, Australia; lives there.

e-flux: Julieta Aranda & Anton Vidokle
J. Aranda: * 1975 Mexico City, Mexico.
They live in Berlin, Germany, and New York, USA.

Warlimpirrnga Tjapaltjarri
* 1959 on a hillside east of Kiwirrkurra, Western Australia.

Rosemarie Trockel
* 1952 Schwerte, Germany. Lives in Cologne, Germany.


Vandy Rattana
* 1980 Phnom Penh, Cambodia; lives there.

Vann Nath
* 1946 Wat Sopee, Cambodia.
+ 2011 Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

Adrián Villar Rojas
* 1980 Rosario, Argentina. Lives in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Jeronimo Voss
* 1981 Hamm/Westphalia, Germany. Lives in Frankfurt/Main, Germany.

Vu Giang Huong
1930 - 2011 Hanoi, Vietnam.


Jessica Warboys
* 1977 Newport, UK. Lives in London and Paris, France.

Lori Waxman
* 1976 Montreal, Canada. Lives in Chicago, USA.

Apichatpong Weerasethakul
in collaboration with Chaisiri Jiwarangsan
A. Weerasethakul : * 1970 Bangkok, Thailand; lives there.
C. Jiwarangsan: 1983 Bangkok, Thailand.

Lawrence Weiner
* 1942 Bronx, New York, USA. Lives in New York and Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

The Worldly House
Archive inspired by Donna Haraway's writings on multispecies co-evolution. Compiled and presented by Tue Greenfort.


Yan Lei
* 1965 Hebei, China. Lives in Beijing, China.

Haegue Yang
* 1971 Seoul, Korea; lives there and in Berlin, Germany.


Akram Zaatari
* 1966 Saida, Lebanon. Lives in Beirut, Lebanon.

* 1964 Kabul, Afghanistan. Lives in Lausanne, Switzerland.

Anton Zeilinger
* 1945. Professor of Physics at the University of Vienna and Director of the Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information of the Austrian Academy of Sciences.

Konrad Zuse
* 1910 Berlin. + 1995 Hünfeld, Germany. From 1936 to 1938, he created the Z1, the first programmable machine based on a binary switching mechanism.

----artist documenta 14 athens and kassle 2017 --

Akinbode Akinbiyi
Nevin Aladağ
Daniel García Andújar
Danai Anesiadou
Andreas Angelidakis
Aristide Antonas
Rasheed Araeen
Ariuntugs Tserenpil
Michel Auder
Alexandra Bachzetsis
Nairy Baghramian
Sammy Baloji
Arben Basha
Rebecca Belmore
Sokol Beqiri
Roger Bernat
Bili Bidjocka
Ross Birrell
Llambi Blido
Nomin Bold
Pavel Brăila
Geta Brătescu
Miriam Cahn
María Magdalena Campos-Pons and Neil Leonard
Vija Celmins
Banu Cennetoğlu
Panos Charalambous
Nikhil Chopra
Ciudad Abierta
Anna Daučíková
Moyra Davey
Yael Davids
Agnes Denes
Manthia Diawara
Beau Dick (1955–2017)
Maria Eichhorn
Hans Eijkelboom
Bonita Ely
Theo Eshetu
Aboubakar Fofana
Peter Friedl
Guillermo Galindo
Regina José Galindo
Israel Galván, Niño de Elche, and Pedro G. Romero
Pélagie Gbaguidi
Apostolos Georgiou
Yervant Gianikian and Angela Ricci Lucchi
Gauri Gill
Marina Gioti
Beatriz González
Douglas Gordon
Hans Haacke
Constantinos Hadzinikolaou
Irena Haiduk
Ganesh Haloi
Anna Halprin
Dale Harding
David Harding
Maria Hassabi
Edi Hila
Susan Hiller
Hiwa K
Olaf Holzapfel
Gordon Hookey
Sanja Iveković
Amar Kanwar
Romuald Karmakar
Andreas Ragnar Kassapis
Kettly Noël
Bouchra Khalili
Khvay Samnang
Daniel Knorr
Katalin Ladik
David Lamelas
Rick Lowe
Alvin Lucier
Ibrahim Mahama
Narimane Mari
Marie Cool Fabio Balducci
Mata Aho Collective
Jonas Mekas
Angela Melitopoulos
Phia Ménard
Lala Meredith-Vula
Gernot Minke
Marta Minujín
Naeem Mohaiemen
Hasan Nallbani
Joar Nango
Rosalind Nashashibi and Nashashibi/Skaer
Negros Tou Moria (Kevin Zans Ansong)
Otobong Nkanga
Emeka Ogboh
Olu Oguibe
Rainer Oldendorf
Pauline Oliveros (1932–2016)
Zafos Xagoraris
Joaquín Orellana Mejía
Christos Papoulias
Véréna Paravel and Lucien Castaing-Taylor
Benjamin Patterson (1934–2016)
Dan Peterman
Angelo Plessas
Nathan Pohio
Prinz Gholam
R. H. Quaytman
Abel Rodríguez
Tracey Rose
Roee Rosen
Lala Rukh
Arin Rungjang
Ben Russell
Georgia Sagri
Máret Ánne Sara
Ashley Hans Scheirl
David Schutter
Algirdas Šeškus
Nilima Sheikh
Ahlam Shibli
Zef Shoshi
Mounira Al Solh
Annie Sprinkle and Beth Stephens
Eva Stefani
K. G. Subramanyan (1924–2016)
Vivian Suter
El Hadji Sy
Sámi Artist Group (Britta Marakatt-Labba, Keviselie/Hans Ragnar Mathisen, Synnøve Persen)
Terre Thaemlitz
Piotr Uklański
Antonio Vega Macotela
Cecilia Vicuña
Annie Vigier & Franck Apertet (les gens d’Uterpan)
Wang Bing
Lois Weinberger
Stanley Whitney
Elisabeth Wild
Ruth Wolf-Rehfeldt
Ulrich Wüst
Sergio Zevallos
Mary Zygouri
Artur Żmijewski

Stephen Antonakos (1926–2013)
Arseny Avraamov (1886–1944)
Étienne Baudet (ca. 1638–1711)
Franz Boas (1858–1942)
Lucius Burckhardt (1925–2003)
Abdurrahim Buza (1905–1986)
Vlassis Caniaris (1928–2011)
Sotir Capo (1934–2012)
Cornelius Cardew (1936–1981)
Ulises Carrión (1941–1989)
Agim Çavdarbasha (1944–1999)
Jani Christou (1926–1970)
Chryssa (1933–2013)
Andre du Colombier (1952–2003)
Bia Davou (1932–1996)
Ioannis Despotopoulos (1903–1992)
Thomas Dick (1877–1927)
Maria Ender (1897–1942)
Forough Farrokhzad (1935–1967)
Tomislav Gotovac (1937–2010)
Nikos Hadjikyriakos-Ghika (1906–1994)
Oskar Hansen (1922–2005)
Sedje Hemon (1923–2011)
Tshibumba Kanda Matulu (1947–1981 disappeared)
Kel Kodheli (1918–2006)
Spiro Kristo (1936–2011)
KSYME-CMRC (founded 1979)
Maria Lai (1919–2013)
George Lappas (1950–2016)
Ernest Mancoba (1904–2002)
Oscar Masotta (1930–1979)
Pandi Mele (1939–2015)
Benode Behari Mukherjee (1904–1980)
Krzysztof Niemczyk (1938–1994)
Ivan Peries (1921–1988)
David Perlov (1930–2003)
André Pierre (1915–2005)
Dimitris Pikionis (1887–1968)
Anne Charlotte Robertson (1949–2012)
Erna Rosenstein (1913–2004)
Scratch Orchestra (1969–1974)
Allan Sekula (1951–2013)
Foto Stamo (1916–1989)
Gani Strazimiri (1915–1993)
Władysław Strzemiński (1893–1952)
Alina Szapocznikow (1926–1973)
Yannis Tsarouchis (1910–1989)
Lionel Wendt (1900–1944)
Basil Wright (1907–1987)
Andrzej Wróblewski (1927–1957)
Iannis Xenakis (1922–2001)
Androniqi Zengo Antoniu (1913–2000)
Pierre Zucca (1943–1995)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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For the Croatian NGO, see Documenta - Centre for Dealing with the Past.
The Fridericianum during dOCUMENTA (13)

documenta is an exhibition of contemporary art which takes place every five years in Kassel, Germany. It was founded by artist, teacher and curator Arnold Bode in 1955 as part of the Bundesgartenschau (Federal Horticultural Show) which took place in Kassel at that time,[1] and was an attempt to bring Germany up to speed with modern art, both banishing and repressing the cultural darkness of Nazism.[2] This first documenta featured many artists who are generally considered to have had a significant influence on modern art (such as Picasso and Kandinsky). The more recent documentas feature art from all continents; nonetheless most of it is site-specific.

Every documenta is limited to 100 days of exhibition, which is why it is often referred to as the "museum of 100 days".[3] Documenta is not a selling exhibition. It rarely coincides with the three other major art world events: the Venice Biennale, Art Basel and Skulptur Projekte Münster, but in 2017, all four were open simultaneously.


Etymology of documenta[edit]

The name of the exhibition is an invented word. The term is supposed to demonstrate the intention of every exhibition (in particular of the first documenta in 1955) to be a documentation of modern art which was not available for the German public during the Nazi era. Rumour spread from those close to Arnold Bode that it was relevant for the coinage of the term that the Latin word documentum could be separated into docere (Latin for teach) and mens (Latin for intellect) and therefore thought it to be a good word to describe the intention and the demand of the documenta.[4]

Each edition of documenta has commissioned its own visual identity, most of which have conformed to the typographic style of solely using lowercase letters, which originated at the Bauhaus.[5]
Stadtverwaldung by Joseph Beuys, oaktree in front of the museum Fridericianum, documenta 7

Art professor and designer Arnold Bode from Kassel was the initiator of the first documenta. Originally planned as a secondary event to accompany the Bundesgartenschau, this attracted more than 130,000 visitors in 1955. The exhibition centred less on "contemporary art“, that is art made after 1945: instead, Bode wanted to show the public works which had been known as "Entartete Kunst" in Germany during the Nazi era: Fauvism, Expressionism, Cubism, Blauer Reiter, Futurism and Pittura Metafisica. Therefore, abstract art, in particular the abstract paintings of the 1920s and 1930s, was the focus of interest in this exhibition.

Over time, the focus shifted to contemporary art. At first, the show was limited to works from Europe, but soon covered works by artists from the Americas, Africa and Asia. 4. documenta, the first ever to turn a profit, featured a selection of Pop Art, Minimal Art, and Kinetic Art.[6] Adopting the theme of Questioning Reality – Pictorial Worlds Today, the 1972 documenta radically redefined what could be considered art by featuring minimal and conceptual art, marking a turning point in the public acceptance of those styles.[7] Also, it devoted a large section to the work of Adolf Wolfli, the great Swiss outsider, then unknown. Joseph Beuys performed repeatedly under the auspices of his utopian Organization for Direct Democracy.[8] Additionally, the 1987 documenta show signaled another important shift with the elevation of design to the realm of art – showing an openness to postmodern design.[9] Certain key political dates for wide-reaching social and cultural upheavals, such as 1945, 1968 or 1976/77, became chronological markers of documenta X (1997), along which art's political, social, cultural and aesthetic exploratory functions were traced.[10] Documenta11 was organized around themes like migration, urbanization and the post-colonial experience,[11] with documentary photography, film and video as well as works from far-flung locales holding the spotlight.[7] In 2012, dOCUMENTA (13) was described as "[a]rdently feminist, global and multimedia in approach and including works by dead artists and selected bits of ancient art".[12]

documenta typically gives its artists at least two years to conceive and produce their projects, so the works are often elaborate and intellectually complex.[13] However, the participants are often not publicised before the very opening of the exhibition. At dOCUMENTA (13), the official list of artists was not released until the day the show opened.[14] Even though curators have often claimed to have gone outside the art market in their selection, participants have always included established artists. In the dOCUMENTA (13), for example, art critic Jerry Saltz identified more than a third of the artists represented by the renowned Marian Goodman Gallery in the show.[14]

The first four documentas, organized by Arnold Bode, established the exhibition's international credentials. Since the fifth documenta (1972), a new artistic director has been named for each documenta exhibition by a committee of experts. Documenta 8 was put together in two years instead of the usual five. The original directors, Edy de Wilde and Harald Szeemann, were unable to get along and stepped down. They were replaced by Manfred Schneckenburger, Edward F. Fry, Wulf Herzogenrath, Armin Zweite, and Vittorio Fagone.[15] Coosje van Bruggen helped select artists for documenta 7, the 1982 edition. DOCUMENTA IX's team of curators consisted of Jan Hoet, Piero Luigi Tazzi, Denys Zacharopoulos, and Bart de Baere.[16] For documenta X Catherine David was chosen as the first woman and the first non-German speaker to hold the post. It is also the first and unique time that its website Documenta x was conceived by a curator (swiss curator Simon Lamunière) as a part of the exhibition. The first non-European director was Okwui Enwezor for Documenta11.[17]

The salary for the artistic director of documenta is around €100,000 a year.[18]
Title     Date     Director     Exhibitors     Exhibits     Visitors
documenta     16 July – 18 September 1955     Arnold Bode     148     670     130,000
II. documenta     11 July – 11 October 1959     Arnold Bode, Werner Haftmann     338     1770     134,000
documenta III     27 June – 5 October 1964     Arnold Bode, Werner Haftmann     361     1450     200,000
4. documenta     27 June – 6 October 1968     24-strong documenta council     151     1000     220,000
documenta 5     30 June – October, 1972     Harald Szeemann     218     820     228,621
documenta 6     24 June – 2 October 1977     Manfred Schneckenburger     622     2700     343,410
documenta 7     19 June – 28 September 1982     Rudi Fuchs     182     1000     378,691
documenta 8     12 June – 20 September 1987     Manfred Schneckenburger     150     600     474,417
DOCUMENTA IX     12 June – 20 September 1992     Jan Hoet     189     1000     603,456
documenta X     21 June – 28 September 1997     Catherine David     120     700     628,776
Documenta11     8 June – 15 September 2002     Okwui Enwezor     118     450     650,924
documenta 12     16 June – 23 September 2007     Roger M. Buergel/Ruth Noack[19]     114     over 500     754,301
dOCUMENTA (13)     9 June – 16 September 2012     Carolyn Christov-Bakargiev     187[20]    
documenta 14     8 April - 16 July 2017 in Athens, Greece; 10 June – 17 September 2017 in Kassel, Germany     Adam Szymczyk    

2012's edition was organized around a central node, the trans-Atlantic melding of two distinct individuals who first encountered each other in the "money-soaked deserts of the United Arab Emirates". As an organizing principle it is simultaneously a commentary on the romantic potentials of globalization and also a critique of how digital platforms can complicate or interrogate the nature of such relationships. Curatorial agents refer to the concept as possessing a "fricative potential for productive awkwardness," wherein a twosome is formed for the purposes of future exploration.[22]

documenta is held in different venues in Kassel. Since 1955, the fixed venue has been the Fridericianum. The documenta-Halle was built in 1992 for DOCUMENTA IX and now houses some of the exhibitions. Other venues used for documenta have included the Karlsaue park, Schloss Wilhelmshöhe, the Neue Galerie, the Ottoneum, and the Kulturzentrum Schlachthof. Though Okwui Enezor notably tried to subvert the euro-centric approach documenta had taken, he instigated a series of five platforms before the Documenta11 in Vienna, Berlin, New Delhi, St Lucia, and Lagos, in an attempt to take documenta into a new post-colonial, borderless space, from which experimental cultures could emerge. DOCUMENTA 12 occupyied five locations, including the Fridericianum, the Wilhelmshöhe castle park and the specially constructed "Aue-Pavillon," or meadow pavilion, designed by French firm Lacaton et Vassal.[23] At dOCUMENTA (13) (2012), about a fifth of the works were unveiled in places like Kabul, Afghanistan, and Banff, Canada.[13]

There are also a number of works that are usually presented outside, most notably in Friedrichsplatz, in front of the Fridericianum, and the Karlsaue park. To handle the number of artworks at DOCUMENTA IX, five connected temporary "trailers" in glass and corrugated metal were built in the Karlsaue.[24] For dOCUMENTA (13), French architects Anne Lacaton and Jean-Philippe Vassal constructed the temporary "Aue-Pavillon" in the park.
View of the Friedrichsplatz with the Fridericianum (2nd Building from the left) and the documenta ticket booth (right)
Permanent installations[edit]
Rahmenbau (1977) by Haus Rucker und Co.

A few of the works exhibited at various documentas remained as purchases in Kassel museums. They include 7000 Eichen by Joseph Beuys; Rahmenbau (1977) by Haus-Rucker-Co; Laserscape Kassel (1977) by Horst H. Baumann; Traumschiff Tante Olga (1977) by Anatol Herzfeld; Vertikaler Erdkilometer by Walter De Maria; Spitzhacke (1982) by Claes Oldenburg; Man walking to the sky (1992) by Jonathan Borofsky; and Fremde by Thomas Schütte (one part of the sculptures are installed on Rotes Palais at Friedrichsplatz, the other on the roof of the Concert Hall in Lübeck).

---- -----shorter --

BIENNALIST @ Venice Biennale
Venice Biennale from wikipedia :
The Venice Biennale (/ˌbiːɛˈnɑːleɪ, -li/; Italian: La Biennale di Venezia [la bi.enˈnaːle di veˈnɛttsja]; in English also called the "Venice Biennial") refers to an arts organization based in Venice
The Art Biennale, a contemporary visual art exhibition and so called because it is held biennially (in odd-numbered years), is the original biennale on which others in the world have been modeled.

venice biennale Biennale di VeneziaVenedig biennalen Bienal_de_VeneciaBiennale de VeniseVenecia Bienalo Bienal de Venecia Biënnale VenetiëBienal de Veneza Μπιενάλε της Βενετίας Biennale Venesia ヴェネツィア・ビエンナーレ   威尼斯双年展 Venedik Bienali  Venedik Bienali Venetsian biennaali Biennale w Wenecji Biennale di Venezia










      curators previous
    * 1948 – Rodolfo Pallucchini
    * 1950 – Rodolfo Pallucchini
    * 1952 – Rodolfo Pallucchini
    * 1954 – Rodolfo Pallucchini
    * 1956 – Rodolfo Pallucchini
    * 1958 – Gian Alberto Dell'Acqua
    * 1960 – Gian Alberto Dell'Acqua
    * 1962 – Gian Alberto Dell'Acqua
    * 1964 – Gian Alberto Dell'Acqua
    * 1966 – Gian Alberto Dell'Acqua
    * 1968 – Maurizio Calvesi and Guido Ballo
    * 1970 – Umbro Apollonio
    * 1972 – Mario Penelope
    * 1974 – Vittorio Gregotti
    * 1976 – Vittorio Gregotti
    * 1978 – Luigi Scarpa
    * 1980 – Luigi Carluccio
    * 1982 – Sisto Dalla Palma
    * 1984 – Maurizio Calvesi
    * 1986 – Maurizio Calvesi
    * 1988 – Giovanni Carandente
    * 1990 – Giovanni Carandente
    * 1993 – Achille Bonito Oliva
    * 1995 – Jean Clair
    * 1997 – Germano Celant
    * 1999 – Harald Szeemann
    * 2001 – Harald Szeemann
    * 2003 – Francesco Bonami
    * 2005 – María de Corral and Rosa Martinez
    * 2007 – Robert Storr
    * 2009 – Daniel Birnbaum
    * 2011 – Bice Curiger
    * 2013 – Massimiliano Gioni
    * 2015 – Okwui Enwezor
    * 2017 – Christine Macel[19]
    * 2019 – Ralph Rugoff[20]

In 2011, the countries were Albania, Andorra, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, China, Congo, Costa Rica, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech and Slovak Republics, Denmark, Egypt, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Haiti, Hungary, Iceland, India, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Mexico, Moldova, Montenegro, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, San Marino, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Singapore, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Syrian Arab Republic, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States of America, Uruguay, Venezuela, Wales and Zimbabwe. In addition to this there are two collective pavilions: Central Asia Pavilion and Istituto Italo-Latino Americano. In 2013, ten new participant countries developed national pavilions for the Biennale: Angola, the Bahamas, Bahrain, the Ivory Coast, Kosovo, Kuwait, the Maldives, Paraguay, Tuvalu, and the Holy See. In 2015, five new participant countries developed pavilions for the Biennale: Grenada [4], Republic of Mozambique, Republic of Seychelles, Mauritius and Mongolia. In 2017, three countries participated in the Art Biennale for the first time: Antigua & Barbuda, Kiribati, and Nigeria.[29]

In 1901, Argentina was the first Latin American nation to participate in the Biennale. In 2011, it was granted a pavilion in the Sale d'Armi, which it will restore.[30]

List of exhibitors in the Argentine Pavilion:

    * 1903 — Pío Collivadino
    * 1905 — Pío Collivadino
    * 1907 — Pío Collivadino
    * 1954 — Lucio Fontana
    * 1958 — Lucio Fontana, Juan del Prete, Raquel Forner
    * 1962 — Antonio Berni
    * 1966 — Lucio Fontana, Julio Le Parc
    * 1968 — Lucio Fontana, Nicolás García Uriburu
    * 1970 — Luis Fernando Benedit
    * 1972 — Lucio Fontana
    * 1978 — Lucio Fontana
    * 1980 — Sergio de Castro, Fabriciano
    * 1982 — Marino di Teana
    * 1984 — Antonio Seguí
    * 1986 — Marta Minujin
    * 1995 — Jorge Orta
    * 1997 — Ana Eckell
    * 1999 — Jaques Bedel, Luis Benedit, Oscar Bony
    * 2001 — Leandro Erlich, Graciela Sacco (Curator: Irma Arestizábal)
    * 2003 — Charly Nijensohn
    * 2005 — Jorge Macchi, Edgardo Rudnitzky
    * 2007 — Guillermo Kuitca, Jorge Macchi, Edgardo Rudnitzky (Commissioner: Adriana Rosenberg)
    * 2009 — Luis Felipe Noé (Curator: Fabián Lebenglik)
    * 2011 — Adrián Villar Rojas (Curator: Rodrigo Alonso)
    * 2013 — Nicola Costantino (Curator: Fernando Farina)
    * 2015 — Juan Carlos Distéfano (Curator: María Teresa Constantín)
    * 2017 — Claudia Fontes (Curator: Christine Macel)


The original Australian Pavilion, designed by Philip Cox to be a temporary structure of fiber cement and steel,[31] was opened in 1988 at the western edge of the Giardini.[32] Italian-born Australian industrialist Franco Belgiorno-Nettis had previously lobbied so successfully that in 1988 Australia beat 16 other countries to the last site on which to build a permanent pavilion in the Giardini.[33] Cox and other generous donors gifted the pavilion to the Commonwealth Government.[34] The pavilion was not heritage protected because of its temporary status.[35] A new, permanent pavilion was designed by architectural practice Denton Corker Marshall and completed in 2015.[36] Built from concrete and steel, the two-story structure contains 240 square meters of exhibition space and the exterior is covered in black granite from Zimbabwe.[37] Australia's participation at the Venice Biennale is managed by the Australia Council for the Arts. However, all of the A$6 million ($6.04 million) originally needed for the new building were to be raised from the private sector.[36] Eventually, the pavilion cost $7.5 million to build, $1 million of which was funded by the Australia Council for the Arts; the rest was donated by 82 private Australian donors, including actress Cate Blanchett[37] and producer Santo Cilauro.[38]

List of exhibitors in the Australian Pavilion:

    * 1954 — Sidney Nolan, Russell Drysdale, William Dobell
    * 1956 — Albert Tucker
    * 1958 — Arthur Streeton, Arthur Boyd
    * 1978 — Ken Unsworth, John Davis, Robert Owen
    * 1980 — Mike Parr, Tony Coleing, Kevin Mortensen
    * 1982 — Peter Booth, Rosalie Gascoigne
    * 1984 — no participation
    * 1986 — Imants Tillers
    * 1988 — Arthur Boyd (Australian Pavilion opens)
    * 1990 — Trevor Nickolls, Rover Thomas
    * 1993 — Jenny Watson
    * 1995 — Bill Henson
    * 1997 — Judy Watson, Yvonne Koolmatrie, Emily Kngwarreye
    * 1999 — Howard Arkley
    * 2001 — Lyndal Jones
    * 2003 — Patricia Piccinini
    * 2005 — Ricky Swallow
    * 2007 — Callum Morton, Susan Norrie, Daniel von Sturmer
    * 2009 — Shaun Gladwell, Vernon Ah Kee, Ken Yonetani, Claire Healy & Sean Cordeiro (Curator: Felicity Fenner)
    * 2011 — Hany Armanious (Curator: Anne Ellegood)
    * 2013 — Simryn Gill (Curator: Catherine de Zegher)
    * 2015 — Fiona Margaret Hall (Curator: Linda Michael)
    * 2017 — Tracey Moffatt (Curator: Natalie King)[39]
    * 2019 – Angelica Mesiti (Curator: Juliana Engberg)


Designed by Joseph Hoffmann with the collaboration of Robert Kramreiter, 1934 (restored by Hans Hollein, 1984).[32] The clear symmetrical building, conceived as a white cube from the outset, was the first Venice pavilion to have been designed by a leading Classical Modern architect. The Hoffmann pavilion was not used following the annexation of Austria by the Third Reich in 1938, nor in the subsequent Biennale years of 1940 and 1942. Austrian artists with close ties to the Nazi regime were shown in the German Pavilion.[40]

List of exhibitors in the Austrian Pavilion:

    * 1978 — Arnulf Rainer (Commissioner: Hans Hollein)
    * 1980 — Valie Export, Maria Lassnig (Commissioner: Hans Hollein)
    * 1982 — Walter Pichler (Commissioner: Hans Hollein)
    * 1984 — Christian Ludwig Attersee (Commissioner: Hans Hollein)
    * 1986 — Max Peintner, Karl Prantl (Commissioner: Hans Hollein)
    * 1988 — Siegfried Anzinger (Commissioner: Hans Hollein)
    * 1990 — Franz West (Commissioner: Hans Hollein)
    * 1993 — Gerwald Rockenschaub, Andrea Fraser, Christian Philipp Müller (Commissioner: Peter Weibel)
    * 1995 — Coop Himmelb(l)au, Peter Kogler, Richard Kriesche, Peter Sandbichler / Constanze Ruhm, Eva Schlegel, Ruth Schnell (Commissioner: Peter Weibel)
    * 1997 — Die Wiener Gruppe (Friedrich Achleitner, Konrad Bayer, Gerhard Rühm, Oswald Wiener) (Commissioner: Peter Weibel)
    * 1999 — Peter Friedl, Rainer Ganahl, Christine Hohenbüchler and Irene Hohenbüchler, Wochenklausur (Commissioner: Peter Weibel)
    * 2001 — Granular Synthesis (Ulf Langheinrich & Kurt Hentschläger), Gelatin (Commissioner: Elisabeth Schweeger)
    * 2003 — Bruno Gironcoli (Commissioner: Kasper König)
    * 2005 — Hans Schabus (Commissioner: Max Hollein)
    * 2007 — Herbert Brandl (Commissioner: Robert Fleck)
    * 2009 — Elke Krystufek, Dorit Margreiter, Lois & Franziska Weinberger (Commissioners: Valie Export und Silvia Eiblmayr)
    * 2011 — Markus Schinwald (Commissioner: Eva Schlegel)
    * 2013 — Mathias Poledna (Commissioner: Jasper Sharp)
    * 2015 – Heimo Zobernig (Commissioner: Yilmaz Dziewior)
    * 2017 – Brigitte Kowanz, Erwin Wurm (Commissioner: Christa Steinle)
    * 2019 – Curator: Felicitas Thun-Hohenstein


List of exhibitors in the Azerbaijan Pavilion:

    * 2007 .............. (Curators – Leyla Akhundzade and Sabina Shikhlinskaya)
    * 2009 ............. (Curator – Leyla Akhundzade)
    * 2011 — Mikayil Abdurahmanov and Altai Sadighzadeh (paintings), Aidan Salakhova and Khanlar Gasimov (sculptures), Zeigam Azizov and Aga Ousseinov (multidisciplinary installations). Curators: Cinghiz Farzaliev and Beral Madra[41]
    * 2013 — Rashad Alakbarov, Sanan Aleskerov, Chingiz Babayev, Butunay Hagverdiyev, Fakhriyya Mammadova, Farid Rasulov (Curator: Herve Mikaeloff)
    * 2015 — Ashraf Murad, Javad Mirjavadov, Tofik Javadov, Rasim Babayev, Fazil Najafov, Huseyn Hagverdi, Shamil Najafzada (Curator: Emin Mammadov)
    * 2017 — HYPNOTICA, Elvin Nabizade (Curators: Emin Mammadov, Martin Roth)


Designed by Leon Sneyers, 1907 (totally restored by Virgilio Vallot, 1948).[32]

List of exhibitors in the Belgian Pavilion:

    * 1948 — Louis Buisseret, James Ensor, Constant Permeke, Louis Van Lint
    * 1958 — Jules Lismonde (fr) (winner of the Renato Carrain Prize)
    * 1964 — Vic Gentils
    * 1997 — Thierry de Cordier
    * 1999 — Michel François, Ann Veronica Janssens
    * 2001 — Luc Tuymans
    * 2005 — Honoré d'O
    * 2007 — Éric Duyckaerts, Berlinde de Bruyckere
    * 2009 — Jef Geys (Curator: Dirk Snauwaert)
    * 2011 — Angel Vergara, Luc Tuymans
    * 2013 — Berlinde de Bruyckere (Curator: J.M. Coetzee)
    * 2015 — Vincent Meessen and guests (Mathieu K. Abonnenc, Sammy Baloji, James Beckett, Melle Nieling, Elisabetta Benassi, Patrick Bernier & Olive Martin, Tamar Guimarães & Kasper Akhøj, Maryam Jafri, Adam Pendleton) (Curator: Katerina Gregos)[42]
    * 2017 — Dirk Braeckman (Curator: Eva Wittocx)


Designed by Amerigo Marchesin, 1964.[32]

List of exhibitors in the Brazilian Pavilion:

    * 1950 — Roberto Burle Marx, Milton Dacosta, Cicero Dias, Emiliano Di Cavalcanti, Flavio de Carvalho, Candido Portinari, José Pancetti, Bruno Giorgi, Victor Brecheret, Livio Abramo, Oswaldo Goeldi
    * 1958 — Lasar Segall
    * 1956 — Aldemir Martins
    * 1960 — Antonio Bandeira, Danilo Di Prete, Manabu Mabe, Aloisio Magalhães, Teresa Nicolao, Loio-Pérsio, Mario Cravo Júnior
    * 1962 — Alfredo Volpi, Anna Letycia Quadros, Fernando Jackson Ribeiro, Gilvan Samico, Iberê Camargo, Isabel Pons, Ivan Serpa, Lygia Clark, Marcelo Grassmann, Rossini Quintas Perez, Rubem Valentim
    * 1964 — Abraham Palatnik, Alfredo Volpi, Almir Mavignier, Franz Weissmann, Frans Krajcberg, Glauco Rodrigues, Tarsila do Amaral
    * 1966 — Sergio de Camargo
    * 1968 — Lygia Clark
    * 1970 — Mary Vieira, Roberto Burle Marx
    * 1972 — Humberto Espíndola, Paulo Roberto Leal, Franz Weissmann
    * 1976 — Claudio Tozzi, Evandro Carlos Jardim, Regina Vater, Sergio Augusto Porto, Vera Chaves Barcellos
    * 1978 — Carlos Fajardo, G. T. O. (Geraldo Telles de Oliveira), Julio Martins da Silva, Luiz Aquila da Rocha Miranda, Maria Auxiliadora da Silva, Maria Madalena Santos Reinbolt, Paulo Gomes Garcez, Wilma Marins
    * 1980 — Anna Bella Geiger, Antonio Dias, Carlos Vergara, Paulo Roberto Leal
    * 1982 — Tunga, Sérgio de Camargo
    * 1984 — Eduardo Sued, Luiz Paulo Baravelli
    * 1986 — Gastão Manoel Henrique, Geraldo de Barros, Renina Katz, Washington Novaes
    * 1988 — José Resende, Juraci Dórea
    * 1990 — Frida Baranek, Daniel Senise, Francisco Brennand, Gilvan Samico, Wesley Duke Lee
    * 1993 — Angelo Venosa, Carlos Fajardo, Emmanuel Nassar
    * 1995 — Arthur Bispo do Rosário, Nuno Ramos
    * 1997 — Jac Leirner, Waltercio Caldas (Curator: Paulo Herkenhoff)
    * 1999 — Iran do Espírito Santo, Nelson Leirner (Curator: Ivo Mesquita)
    * 2001 — Vik Muniz, Ernesto Neto, Miguel Rio Branco, Tunga, (Curator: Germano Celant)
    * 2003 — Beatriz Milhazes, Rosângela Rennó (Curator: Alfons Hug)
    * 2005 — Chelpa Ferro, Caio Reisewitz (Curator: Alfons Hug)
    * 2007 — José Damasceno, Detanico & Lain (Curator: Jacopo Crivelli Visconti)
    * 2009 — Luiz Braga, Delson Uchôa (Curator: Ivo Mesquita)
    * 2011 — Artur Barrio (Curators: Moacir dos Anjos, Agnaldo Farias)
    * 2013 — Hélio Fervenza, Odires Mlászho, Lygia Clark, Max Bill, Bruno Munari (Curator: Luis Pérez-Oramas)
    * 2015 — André Komatsu, Antonio Manuel, Berna Reale (Curator: Luiz Camillo Osorio)
    * 2017 — Cinthia Marcelle (Curator: Jochen Volz)


The Canadian pavilion was designed by the Milan-based architecture firm BBPR (Gian Luigi Banfi, Ludovico Barbiano di Belgiojoso, Enrico Peressutti, Ernesto Nathan Rogers) and was first used at the 1958 biennale.[32] The nation has been participating in the international exhibition since 1952.[43] The National Gallery of Canada took over the Venice selection process from the Canada Council in 2010.

List of exhibitors in the Canadian Pavilion:

    * 1952 — Emily Carr, David Milne, Goodridge Roberts, Alfred Pellan
    * 1954 — B C Binning, Paul-Émile Borduas, Jean-Paul Riopelle
    * 1956 — Jack Shadbolt, Louis Archambault, Harold Town
    * 1958 — James Wilson Morrice, Jacques de Tonnancour, Anne Kahane, Jack Nichols
    * 1960 — Edmund Alleyn, Graham Coughtry, Jean Paul Lemieux, Frances Loring, Albert Dumouchel
    * 1962 — Jean-Paul Riopelle
    * 1964 — Harold Town, Elza Mayhew
    * 1966 — Alex Colville, Yves Gaucher, Sorel Etrog
    * 1968 — Ulysse Comtois, Guido Molinari
    * 1970 — Michael Snow
    * 1972 — Gershon Iskowitz, Walter Redinger
    * 1976 — Greg Curnoe
    * 1978 — Ron Martin, Henry Saxe
    * 1980 — Collin Campbell, Pierre Falardeau & Julien Poulin, General Idea, Tom Sherman, Lisa Steele
    * 1982 — Paterson Ewen
    * 1984 — Ian Carr-Harris, Liz Magor
    * 1986 — Melvin Charney, Krzysztof Wodiczko
    * 1988 — Roland Brener, Michel Goulet
    * 1990 — Geneviève Cadieux
    * 1993 — Robin Collyer
    * 1995 — Edward Poitras
    * 1997 — Rodney Graham (Curator: Loretta Yarlow)[44]
    * 1999 — Tom Dean
    * 2001 — Janet Cardiff & George Bures Miller (Curator: Wayne Baerwaldt)
    * 2003 — Jana Sterbak (Curator: Gilles Godmer)
    * 2005 — Rebecca Belmore
    * 2007 — David Altmejd (Curator: Louise Déry)
    * 2009 — Mark Lewis (Curator: Barbara Fischer)
    * 2011 — Steven Shearer (Curator: Josée Drouin-Brisebois)
    * 2013 — Shary Boyle[45] (Curator: Josée Drouin-Brisebois)
    * 2015 — BGL (Curator: Marie Fraser)
    * 2017 — Geoffrey Farmer (Curator: Kitty Scott)[46]

List of exhibitors in the Chilean Pavilion:

    * 2009 — Iván Navarro (Curators: Antonio Arévalo, Justo Pastor Mellado)
    * 2011 — Fernando Prats (Curator: Fernando Castro Flórez)
    * 2013 — Alfredo Jaar (Curator: Madeleine Grynsztejn)
    * 2015 — Paz Errázuriz, Lotty Rosenfeld (Curator: Nelly Richard)
    * 2017 — Bernardo Oyarzún (Curator: Ticio Escobar)


List of exhibitors in the Croatian Pavilion:[47]

    * 1993 — Milivoj Bijelić, Ivo Deković, and Željko Kipke
    * 1995 — Martina Kramer, Goran Petercol, Mirko Zrinščak, Ivan Faktor, Nina Ivančić, Damir Sokić, Mladen Stilinović, Dean Jokanović Toumin, Goran Trbuljak, Gorki Žanić
    * 1997 — Dalibor Martinis
    * 1999 — Zlatan Vrkljan
    * 2001 — Julije Knifer
    * 2003 — Boris Cvjetanović and Ana Opalić
    * 2010 — Saša Begović, Marko Dabrović, Igor Franić, Tanja Grozdanić, Petar Mišković, Silvije Novak, Veljko Oluić, Helena Paver Njirić, Lea Pelivan, Toma Plejić, Goran Rako, Saša Randić, Turato Idis, Pero Vuković e Tonči Žarnić
    * 2013 — Kata Mijatović (Curator: Branko Franceschi)
    * 2015 — Damir Očko (Curator: Marc Bembekoff)
    * 2017 — Tina Gverović, Marko Tadić (Curator: Branka Benčić)

Czech Republic and Slovakia[edit]

Designed by Otakar Novotný, 1926 (annex built by Boguslav Rychlinch, 1970).[32]

List of exhibitors in the Czech and Slovak Pavilion:

    * 1926 — Charlotte Schrötter-Radnitz
    * 1942 - Janko Alexy, Miloš Alexander Bazovský, Martin Benka, Ľudovít Fulla, Jan Hála, Jozef Kollar, Frantisek Kudlac, Eugen Lehotský, Gustav Mally, Peter Matejka, Lea Mrazova, Jan Mudroch, Karol Ondreička, Štefan Polkoráb, Teodor Tekel, Jaroslav Votruba, Júlia Kováciková-Horová, Vojtech Ihrisky, Jan Koniarek, Jozef Kostka, Ladislav Majerský, Fraňo Stefunko, Koloman Sokol
    * 1956 — Josef Lada, Adolf Zábranský, Jiří Trnka, Antonín Pelc, Cyril Bouda, Václav Karel, Kamil Lhoták, Antonín Strnadel, Vincenc Vingler, a.o.
    * 1964 — Vladimír Kompánek
    * 1966 — Jozef Kornucik, Vladimír Kompánek
    * 1970 — Jozef Jankovič
    * 1986 — Ivan Ouhel
    * 1993 — František Skála, Daniel Fischer
    * 1995 — Jozef Jankovič
    * 1999 — (Curators: Petra Hanáková and Alexandra Kusá)
    * 2001 — Jiří Surůvka, Ilona Németh (Curator: Katarína Rusnáková)
    * 2005 — Stanislav Filko, Jan Mančuška, Boris Ondreička (Curator: Marek Pokorný)
    * 2007 — Irena Jůzová (Curator: Tomáš Vlček)
    * 2009 — Roman Ondák (Curator: Kathrin Rhomberg)
    * 2011 — Dominik Lang (Curator: Yvona Ferencová)
    * 2013 — Petra Feriancová, Zbyněk Baladrán (Curator: Marek Pokorný)
    * 2015 — Jiří David (Curator: Katarína Rusnáková)
    * 2017 — Jana Želibská


Designed by Carl Brummer, 1932 (annex designed by Peter Koch, 1958).[32]

The Danish Arts Council Committee for International Visual Arts serves as commissioner for the Danish Pavilion at the Biennale, where Denmark has taken part since 1895.[48]

List of exhibitors in the Danish Pavilion:

    * 1999 — Jason Rhoades, Peter Bonde
    * 2003 — Olafur Eliasson
    * 2005 — Eva Koch, Joachim Koester, Peter Land, Ann Lislegaard, Gitte Villesen
    * 2007 — Troels Wörsel (Commissioner: Holger Reenberg; Assistant Commissioner: Stinna Toft Christensen)
    * 2009 — Elmgreen and Dragset
    * 2011 — Taryn Simon and others (Curator: Katerina Gregos)
    * 2013 — Jesper Just
    * 2015 — Danh Vo[49] (Curators: Marianne Torp, Tine Vindfeld
    * 2017 — Kirstine Roepstorff[50]


Egypt was assigned a pavilion in 1952.

List of exhibitors in the Egyptian Pavilion:

    * 1960 — Kamal Amin
    * 1976 — Kamal Amin
    * 1995 — Akram El Magdoub — Hamdi Attia — Medhat Shafik — Khaled Shokry
    * 2009 — Adel El Siwi, Ahmad Askalany (Curator: Adel El Siwi)
    * 2011 — Ahmed Basiony (Curators: Aida Eltorie, Shady El Noshokaty)
    * 2013 — Mohamed Banawy, Khaled Zaki
    * 2015 — Ahmed Abdel Fatah, Gamal Elkheshen, Maher Dawoud
    * 2017 — Moataz Nasr[51]


The expositions at the Estonian Pavilion are regularly commissioned by the Center for Contemporary Arts, Estonia.

List of exhibitors in the Estonian Pavilion:

    * 2003 — Kaido Ole
    * 2005 — Mark Raidpere (Curator: Hanno Soans)
    * 2007 — Marko Mäetamm (Curator: Mika Hannula)
    * 2009 — Kristina Norman (Curator: Marko Laimre)
    * 2011 — Liina Siib
    * 2013 — Dénes Farkas
    * 2015 — Jaanus Samma (Curator: Eugenio Viola)
    * 2017 — Katja Novitskova (Curator: Kati Ilves)[52]
    * 2019 — Kris Lemsalu[53]


Designed by Alvar Aalto to be a temporary construction for the architecture biennale in 1956, the pavilion was later restored by Fredrik Fogh with the collaboration of Elsa Makiniemi, 1976–1982. Also used by Iceland.[32] In 2011, a big tree fell on the pavilion in Venice, effectively interrupting the Finnish exhibition in the 2011 biennale. The pavilion and the works exhibited there were damaged and the show had to be closed ahead of time. The pavilion was later restored in 2012 by Gianni Talamini.[54]

    * 2005 — Jaakko Heikkilä
    * 2007 — Maaria Wirkkala
    * 2011 — Vesa-Pekka Rannikko (Curator: Laura Köönikkä)
    * 2013 — Antti Laitinen, Terike Haapoja (Curators: Mika Elo, Marko Karo Harri Laakso)
    * 2015 — IC-98 – Visa Suonpää, Patrik Söderlund (Curator: Taru Elfving)
    * 2017 — Erkka Nissinen, Nathaniel Mellors (Curator: Xander Karskens)[55]


The French pavilion was designed by Faust Finzi in 1912.[43]

List of exhibitors in the French Pavilion:

    * 1962 — Alfred Manessier, Jean Messagier, Serge Poliakoff, Andrew Marfaing, James Guitet
    * 1976 — Herve Fisher, Fred Forest, Raymond Hains, Alain Jacquet, Bertrand Lavier, Jean-Pierre Raynaud, Jean-Michel Sanejouand, Jean-Paul Thenot (Commissioner: Pierre Restany)
    * 1982 — Simon Hantaï
    * 1984 — Jean Dubuffet
    * 1986 — Daniel Buren
    * 1991 — Jean Nouvel, Christian de Portzamparc, Philippe Starck
    * 1993 — Jean-Pierre Raynaud
    * 1995 — César
    * 1997 — Fabrice Hybert
    * 1999 — Huang Yong Ping, Jean-Pierre Bertrand
    * 2001 — Pierre Huyghe
    * 2003 — Jean-Marc Bustamante
    * 2005 — Annette Messager (Curator: Caroline Ferreira)
    * 2007 — Sophie Calle
    * 2009 — Claude Lévêque (Curator: Christian Bernard)
    * 2011 — Christian Boltanski (Curator: Jean-Hubert Martin)
    * 2013 — Anri Sala (Curator: Christine Macel) [Exhibition was held at the German pavilion]
    * 2015 — Céleste Boursier-Mougenot, Lili Reynaud-Dewar (Curator: Emma Lavigne)[56]
    * 2017 – Xavier Veilhan (Curators: Lionel Bovier, Christian Marclay)


The commissioner for the German contribution to Biennial is the German Foreign Ministry. On the recommendation of an advisory committee of museum directors and art experts, the ministry appoints a curator (formerly called a commissioner) responsible for the selection of the artists and the organisation of the contribution. This appointment is usually for two years in succession. The Sparkassen-Kulturfonds (culture fund) of the Deutscher Sparkassen- und Giroverband is the pavilion's main sponsor. The Goethe-Institut and, since 2013, the ifa Friends of the German Pavilion are also funders.[25]

From 1982 until 1990 the German Democratic Republic organized its own exhibitions in the former Pavilion of Decorative Art. Germany's pavilion was redesigned by Ernst Haiger and inaugurated in 1938 by the ruling Nazi government, a fact that has inspired artistic responses from some presenters.[43] It was originally designed by Daniele Donghi in 1909.[32]

List of exhibitors in the German Pavilion:

    * 1950 — Der Blaue Reiter (Curator: Eberhard Hanfstaengl)
    * 1952 — Die Brücke (Curator: Eberhard Hanfstaengl)
    * 1954 — Heinz Battke, Leo Cremer, Edgar Ende, Paul Klee, Karl Kunz, Oskar Schlemmer, Rudolf Schlichter, Hans Uhlmann, Mac Zimmermann (Curator: Eberhard Hanfstaengl)
    * 1958 — Karl Otto Götz, Fred Thieler, Julius Bissier, Rolf Cavael, Werner Gilles, Otto Herbert Hajek, Wassily Kandinsky, Heinrich Kirchner, Fritz Koenig, Hans Mettel, Otto Pankok, Hans Platschek, E. Andreas Rauch, Karl Schmidt-Rottluff, Johanna Schütz-Wolff, Emil Schumacher, K. R. H. Sonderborg, Wilhelm Wessel, Hans Wimmer (Curator: Eberhard Hanfstaengl)
    * 1960 — Willi Baumeister, Julius Bissier, Emil Cimiotti, Karl Schmidt-Rottluff, Rupert Stöckl, Werner Schreib, Ernst Weiers (Kurator Konrad Röthel)
    * 1962 — Werner Gilles, HAP Grieshaber, Erich Heckel, Alfred Lörcher, Brigitte Meier-Denninghoff, Emil Schumacher (Curator: Konrad Röthel)
    * 1964 — Joseph Fassbender, Norbert Kricke (Commissioner: Eduard Trier)
    * 1966 — Horst Antes, Günter Haese, Ferdinand Ris (Commissioner: Eduard Trier)
    * 1968 — Horst Janssen, Richard Oelze (Commissioner: Alfred Hentzen)
    * 1970 — Kaspar-Thomas Lenk, Heinz Mack, Georg Karl Pfahler, Günther Uecker (Commissioner: Dieter Honisch)
    * 1972 — Gerhard Richter (Commissioner: Dieter Honisch)
    * 1976 — Joseph Beuys, Jochen Gerz, Reiner Ruthenbeck (Commissioner: Klaus Gallwitz)
    * 1978 — Dieter Krieg, Ulrich Rückriem (Commissioner: Klaus Gallwitz)
    * 1980 — Georg Baselitz, Anselm Kiefer (Commissioner: Klaus Gallwitz)
    * 1982 — Hanne Darboven, Gotthard Graubner, Wolfgang Laib (Commissioner: Johannes Cladders)
    * 1984 — Lothar Baumgarten, A. R. Penck (Commissioner: Johannes Cladders)
    * 1986 — Sigmar Polke (Commissioner: Dierk Stemmler)
    * 1988 — Felix Droese (Commissioner: Dierk Stemmler)
    * 1990 — Bernd and Hilla Becher, Reinhard Mucha (Commissioner: Klaus Bußmann)
    * 1993 — Hans Haacke, Nam June Paik (Commissioner: Klaus Bußmann)
    * 1995 — Katharina Fritsch, Martin Honert, Thomas Ruff (Commissioner: Jean-Christophe Ammann)
    * 1997 — Gerhard Merz, Katharina Sieverding (Commissioner: Gudrun Inboden)
    * 1999 — Rosemarie Trockel (Commissioner: Gudrun Inboden)
    * 2001 — Gregor Schneider (Commissioner: Udo Kittelmann)
    * 2003 — Candida Höfer, Martin Kippenberger (Curator: Julian Heynen)
    * 2005 — Thomas Scheibitz, Tino Sehgal (Curator: Julian Heynen)
    * 2007 — Isa Genzken (Curator: Nicolaus Schafhausen)
    * 2009 — Liam Gillick (Curator: Nicolaus Schafhausen)
    * 2011 — Christoph Schlingensief (Curator: Susanne Gaensheimer)
    * 2013 — Ai Weiwei, Romuald Karmakar, Santu Mofokeng, Dayanita Singh (Curator: Susanne Gaensheimer) [Exhibition was held at the French pavilion]
    * 2015 — Tobias Zielony, Hito Steyerl, Olaf Nicolai, Jasmina Metwaly and Philip Rizk (Curator: Florian Ebner)[57]
    * 2017 — Anne Imhof (Curator: Susanne Pfeffer)- (Winner of the Golden Lion for "Best National Participation"),[58][59] Oliver Weber
    * 2019 – Curator: Franciska Zólyom

Great Britain[edit]
British Pavilion

Designed by Edwin Alfred Rickards, 1909.[32]

Since 1938 the British Council has been responsible for the British Pavilion in Venice.

List of exhibitors in the British Pavilion:

    * 1948 — Sculptures by Henry Moore. Paintings by J. M. W. Turner. Works by Ben Nicholson and John Tunnard.
    * 1950 — Paintings by Matthew Smith and John Constable. Sculptures by Barbara Hepworth.
    * 1952 — Paintings by Graham Sutherland and Edward Wadsworth. Sculptures by the New Aspects of British Sculpture group (Robert Adams, Kenneth Armitage, Reg Butler, Lynn Chadwick, Geoffrey Clarke, Bernard Meadows, Henry Moore, Eduardo Paolozzi, and William Turnbull).
    * 1954 — Paintings by Francis Bacon, Lucian Freud, and Ben Nicholson. Sculptures by Reg Butler relating to his Unknown Political Prisoner monument. Lithographs by Allin Brains, Geoffrey Clarke, Henry Cliffe, Robert Colquhoun, William Gear, Henry Moore, Eduardo Paolozzi, Ceri Richards, William Scott, and Graham Sutherland.
    * 1956 — Paintings by Ivon Hitchens, John Bratby, Derrick Greaves, Edward Middleditch, and Jack Smith. Sculptures by Lynn Chadwick.
    * 1958 — Paintings by William Scott and S. W. Hayter. Sculptures by Kenneth Armitage, Sezione Giovani, Sandra Blow, Anthony Caro, and Alan Davie.
    * 1960 — Mixed media works by Victor Pasmore. Paintings by Merlyn Evans, Geoffrey Clarke, Henry Cliffe.
    * 1962 — Paintings by Ceri Richards. Sculptures by Robert Adams and Hubert Dalwood.
    * 1964 — Mixed media works by Joe Tilson. Paintings by Roger Hilton, Gwyther Irwin. Sculptures by Bernard Meadows.
    * 1966 — Paintings by Richard Smith, Bernard Cohen, Harold Cohen, and Robyn Denny. Sculptures by Anthony Caro.
    * 1968 — Paintings by Bridget Riley and Francis Bacon. Sculptures by Philip King. 'Ways of Contemporary Research' exhibition with works by Anthony Caro, David Hockney, Ben Nicholson, Eduardo Paolozzi, Victor Pasmore, Graham Sutherland.
    * 1970 — Paintings by Richard Smith.
    * 1972 — Paintings by John Walker. Sculptures by William G. Tucker. 'Grafica sperimentale per la stampa' exhibition with works by Pentagram (Alan Fletcher, Colin Forbes, Mervyn Kurlansky), Michael English, John Gorham, F. H. K. Henrion, Lou Klein, Enzo Ragazzini. 'Il Libro come luogo di ricerca' exhibition with works by Gilbert and George and Victor Burgin.
    * 1976 — Works by Richard Long, Richard Hamilton, Victor Pasmore, David Mackay, Alison and Peter Smithson, James Stirling, John Davies, Phillip Hyde, Anne Rawcliffe-King, Yolanda Teuten.
    * 1978 — Photography by Mark Boyle. 'Six Stations for Art-Nature. The Nature of Art' exhibition with works by Gilbert and George, Francis Bacon, David Hockney, Richard Long, and Malcolm Morley. 'Art and Cinema' by Anthony McCall.
    * 1980 — Works by Tim Head and Nicholas Pope. 'Art in the Seventies' exhibition with works by Bruce McLean, Kenneth Martin, Television Exhibitions, Barry Flanagan, Gilbert and George, Hamish Fulton, and Richard Long. 'Art in the Seventies. Open 80' exhibition with works by Roger Ackling, Tony Cragg, and Leonard McComb.
    * 1982 — Works by Barry Flanagan. 'Aperto 82' exhibition with works by Catherine Blacker, Stephen Cox, Antony Gormley, Tim Head, Shirazeh Houshiary, Anish Kapoor, Christopher Le Brun, Judy Pfaff, Stephen Willats, and Bill Woodrow. 'Arte come arte: persistenza dell'opera — Mostra internazionale' exhibition with works by Frank Auerbach, Lucian Freud, Ronald Kitaj, and Raymond Mason.
    * 1984 — Works by Howard Hodgkin. 'Arte allo Specchio' exhibition with works by Peter Greenaway and Christopher Le Brun. 'Arte, Ambiente, Scena' exhibition with works by Judy Pfaff. 'Aperto 84' exhibition with works by Terry Atkinson, Helen Chadwick, Rose Garrard, Glenys Johnson, Paul Richards, Amikam Toren, and Kerry Treng.
    * 1986 — Works by Frank Auerbach (Commissioner: Henry Meyric Hughes). 'Aperto 86' exhibition with works by Lisa Milroy, John Murphy, Avis Newman, Jacqueline Poncelet, Boyd Webb, and Richard Wilson. 'Art e Scienza' exhibition with works by Eric Bainbridge, Alastair Brotchie, Anthony Caro, Leonora Carrington, Ithell Colquhoun, Stephen Cox, Tony Cragg, Neil Cummings, Brian Eno, Barry Flanagan, Jeremy Gardiner, Eric Gidney, Jocelyn Godwin, Anthony Gormley, Paul Hayward, Allen Jones, Liliane Lijn, Peter Lowe, Kyeran Lyons, Conroy Maddox, Thomas Major, Kenneth Martin, Mary Martin, Alastair Morton, Hugh O'Donnell, Andrew Owens, Digital Pictures, Mike Punt, Bridget Riley, Kurt Schwitters, Peter Sedgley, Jeffrey Steele, Paul Thomas, Philip West, and Alison Wilding.
    * 1988 — Tony Cragg (Commissioner: Henry Meyric Hughes). 'Aperto 88' exhibition with works by Tony Bevan, Hannah Collins, Grenville Davey, Andy Goldsworthy, Simon Linke, Peter Nadin, and Thoms William Puckey. 'Scultori ai Giardini' exhibition with works by Lynn Chadwick, Anthony Core, Philip King, and Joe Tilson.
    * 1990 — Anish Kapoor (Commissioner: Henry Meyric Hughes). 'Three Scottish Sculptors' exhibition with works by David Mach, Arthur Watson, and Kate Whiteford. 'Aperto 90' with works by Eric Bainbridge, David Leapman, Patrick Joseph McBride, Therese Oulton, Fiona Rae, and Anthony Wilson. 'Fluxus' exhibition with works by Braco Dimitrijevic, Brion Gysin, Dick Higgins, and Robin Page.
    * 1993 — Richard Hamilton (Commissioner: Andrea Rose). 'Aperto 93' exhibition with works by Henry Bond, Christine Borland, Angela Bulloch, Mat Collishaw, Damien Hirst, Simon Patterson, Vong Phaophanit, Steven Pippin, Julie Roberts, and Georgina Starr. 'Punti dell'arte' exhibition with works by Anish Kapoor. 'Slittamenti' exhibition with works by Peter Greenaway and Derek Jarman. 'Macchine della pace' exhibition with works by Tony Cragg, Shirazeh Houshiary, and Julian Opie. 'La coesistenza dell'arte' exhibition with works by Braco Dimitrijevic. 'Art against Aids. Venezia 93' exhibition with works by Gilbert and George, Frank Auerbach, Tony Cragg, Richard Deacon, Shirazeh Houshiary, Anish Kapoor, Ronald Kitaj, Malcolm Morley, Ray Smith, and Rachel Whiteread. 'Tresors de Voyage' exhibition with works by Braco Dimitrijevic, Shirazeh Houshiary, and Anish Kapoor.
    * 1995 — Works by Leon Kossoff. 'General Release: Young British Artists' exhibition with works by Fiona Banner, Dinos Chapman, Jake Chapman, Adam Chodzko, Matthew Dalziel, and Louise Scullion, Cerith Wyn Evans, Elizabeth Wright, Tacita Dean, Lucy Gunning, Sam Taylor-Wood, Jane and Louise Wilson, Jaki Irvine, Gary Hume, Douglas Gordan, Tom Gidley, and Ceal Floyer.
    * 1997 — Rachel Whiteread (Commissioner: Andrea Rose)
    * 1999 — Paintings by Gary Hume (Commissioner: Andrea Rose)
    * 2001 — Mark Wallinger (Commissioner: Andrea Rose; curator: Ann Gallagher)
    * 2003 — Chris Ofili (Commissioner: Andrea Rose; curator: Colin Ledwith)
    * 2005 — Gilbert and George (Commissioner: Andrea Rose; curator: Richard Riley)
    * 2007 — Tracey Emin (Commissioner: Andrea Rose)
    * 2009 — Video installation by Steve McQueen
    * 2011 — Mike Nelson (Commissioner: Andrea Rose; curator: Richard Riley)
    * 2013 — Jeremy Deller (Curator: Emma Gifford-Mead)
    * 2015 — Sarah Lucas (Curator: Richard Riley)
    * 2017 — Phyllida Barlow
    * 2017 — Cathy Wilkes (Curator: Zoe Whitley)[60]



    * 1936 — Maria Anagnostopoulou, Umberto Argyros, Constantinos Artemis, Nicolas Asprogerakas (Commissioner: Typaldo Forestis)
    * 1936 — Konstantinos Maleas, Nikolaos Lytras, C. Stefanopoulo Alessandridi, Umberto Argyros, Aglae Papa (Commissioner: Typaldo Forestis)
    * 1938 — Constantin Parthenis, Michalis Tombros, Angelos Theodoropoulos (Commissioners: Antonios Benakis, Typaldo Forestis)
    * 1940 — Aginor Asteriadis, Yannis Mitarakis, Pavlos Rodokanakis, Dimitris Vitsoris, Bella Raftopoulou, Costis Papachristopoulos, George Zongolopoulos, Dimitrios Ghianoukakis, Alexandros Korogiannakis, Efthimios Papadimitriou
    * 1950 — Bouzianis Giorgos
    * 1976 — Michael Michaeledes, Aglaia Liberaki (Commissioner: Sotiris Messinis)
    * 1978 — Yannis Pappas (Commissioner: Sotiris Messinis)
    * 1980 — Pavlos (Dionysopoulos) (Commissioners: Sotiris Messinis, Emmanuel Mavrommatis)
    * 1982 — Diamantis Diamantopoulos, Costas Coulentianos (Commissioner: Sotiris Messinis)
    * 1984 — Christos Caras, George Georgiadis (Commissioner: Sotiris Messinis)
    * 1986 — Costas Tsoclis (Commissioners: Nelli Missirli, Sotiris Messinis)
    * 1988 — Vlassis Caniaris, Nikos Kessanlis (Commissioner: Emmanuel Mavrommatis)
    * 1990 — Georges Lappas, Yannis Bouteas (Commissioner: Manos Stefanidis)
    * 1993 — George Zongolopoulos (Commissioner: Efi Andreadi)
    * 1995 — Takis (Commissioner: Maria Marangou)
    * 1997 — Dimitri Alithinos, Stephen Antonakos, Totsikas, Alexandros Psychoulis (Commissioner: Efi Strousa)
    * 1999 — Costas Varotsos, Danae Stratou, Evanthia Tsantila (Commissioner: Anna Kafetsi)
    * 2001 — Nikos Navridis, Ilias Papailiakis, Ersi Chatziargyrou (Commissioner: Lina Tsikouta)
    * 2003 — Athanasia Kyriakakos, Dimitris Rotsios (Commissioner: Marina Fokidis)
    * 2005 — George Hadjimichalis (Commissioner: Katerina Koskina)
    * 2007 — Nikos Alexiou (Commissioner: Yorgos Tzirtzilakis)
    * 2009 — Lucas Samaras (Curator: Matthew Higgs)
    * 2011 — Diohandi (Curator: Maria Marangou)
    * 2013 — Stefanos Tsivopoulos (Curator: Syrago Tsiara)
    * 2015 — Maria Papadimitriou (Curator: Gabi Scardi)
    * 2017 — George Drivas (Curator: Orestis Andreadakis)

Hong Kong[edit]

List of exhibitors in the Hong Kong Pavilion:

    * 2009 — Pak Sheung Chuen (Curator: Tobias Berger)
    * 2011 — Kwok Mang Ho (known as Frog King)
    * 2013 — Lee Kit (Curators: Lars Nittve, Yung Ma)
    * 2015 — Tsang Kin-wah (Curators: Doryun Chong, Stella Fong)[61]
    * 2017 — Samson Young
    * 2019 — Shirley Tse (Curator: Christina Li)[62]


Designed by Géza Rintel Maróti, 1909 (restored by Agost Benkhard, 1958).[32]

List of exhibitors in the Hungarian Pavilion:

    * 1968 — Ignác Kokas, Béla Kondor, Tibor Vilt
    * 1982 — Erzsébet Schaár (Commissioner: Géza Csorba)
    * 1984 — Imre Varga, György Vadász (Commissioner: Géza Csorba)
    * 1986 — Imre Bak, Ákos Birkás, Károly Kelemen, István Nádler (Commissioner: Katalin Néray)
    * 1988 — Imre Bukta, Sándor Pinczehelyi, Géza Samu (Commissioner: Katalin Néray)
    * 1990 — László Fehér (Commissioner: Katalin Néray)
    * 1993 — Joseph Kosuth, Viktor Lois (Commissioner: Katalin Keserü)
    * 1995 — György Jovánovics (Commissioner: Márta Kovalovszky)
    * 1997 — Róza El-Hassan, Judit Herskó, Éva Köves (Commissioner: Katalin Néray)
    * 1999 — Imre Bukta, Emese Benczúr, Attila Csörgö, Gábor Erdélyi, Mariann Imre (Curator: János Sturcz)
    * 2001 — Antal Lakner, Tamás Komoróczky (Curator: Júlia Fabényi, Barnabás Bencsik)
    * 2003 — Little Warsaw (András Gálik, Bálint Havas) (Curator: Zsolt Petrányi)
    * 2005 — Balázs Kicsiny (Curator: Péter Fitz)
    * 2007 — Andreas Fogarasi (Curator: Katalin Timár)
    * 2009 — Péter Forgács (Curator: András Rényi)
    * 2011 — Hajnal Németh (Curator: Miklós Peternák)
    * 2013 — Zsolt Asztalos (Curator: Gabriella Uhl)
    * 2015 — Szilárd Cseke (Curator: Kinga German)
    * 2017 — Gyula Várnai (Curator: Zsolt Petrányi)


In 1984, as Finland had joined Norway and Sweden in the Nordic Pavilion, Iceland was given the opportunity to rent the Finnish pavilion until 2006.[32] The Icelandic Art Center commissions the Icelandic Pavilion at the Venice Biennale.[63]

List of exhibitors in the Icelandish Pavilion:[64]

    * 1960 — Jóhannes Sveinsson Kjarval, Ásmundur Sveinsson
    * 1972 — Svavar Guðnason, Þorvaldur Skúlason
    * 1980 — Magnús Pálsson
    * 1982 — Gunnar Árnason, Kristján Guðmundsson
    * 1984 — Kristján Davidsson
    * 1986 — Erró
    * 1988 — Gunnar Örn
    * 1990 — Helgi Þorgils Friðjónsson
    * 1995 — Birgir Andrésson
    * 1997 — Steina Vasulka
    * 1999 — Sigurður Árni Sigurðsson
    * 2001 — Finnbogi Pétursson
    * 2003 — Rúrí
    * 2005 — Gabríela Friðriksdóttir
    * 2007 — Steingrímur Eyfjörð (Curator: Hanna Styrmisdóttir)
    * 2009 — Ragnar Kjartansson (Curators: Markús Thór Andrésson, Dorothée Kirch)
    * 2011 — Libia Castro & Ólafur Ólafsson (Curator: Ellen Blumenstein)
    * 2013 — Katrín Sigurðardóttir (Curators: Mary Ceruti, Ilaria Bonacossa)
    * 2015 — Christoph Büchel (Curator: Nína Magnúsdóttir)
    * 2017 – Egill Sæbjörnsson (Curator: Stefanie Böttcher)


In 2011, India was represented for the first time after 116 years, with the support of the culture ministry and the organizational participation of the Lalit Kala Akademi.[43] Biennale organizers had reportedly invited the country in past years, but the government had declined, a decision attributed to a lack of communication between the culture ministry and the country's National Gallery of Modern Art.[43]

    * 2011 — Mriganka Madhukaliya, Sonal Jain, Zarina Hashmi, Gigi Scaria, Praneet Soi (Curator: Ranjit Hoskote)
    * 2015 — Shilpa Gupta, Rashid Rana (Exhibition jointly held with Pakistan)


In 2011, Iraq returned to the Biennale for the first time after a 35-year absence. The title of the Iraq Pavilion was "Acqua Ferita" (translated as "Wounded Water"). Six Iraqi artists from two generations interpreted the theme of water in their works, which made up the exhibition.

    * 2011 — Adel Abidin, Halim Al Karim, Ahmed Alsoudani, Ali Assaf, Azad Nanakeli, Walid Siti
    * 2015 — Philippe Van Cauteren
    * 2017 — Sherko Abbas, Sadik Kwaish Alfraji, Francis Alÿs, Ali Arkady, Luary Fadhil, Shakir Hassan Al Said, Nadine Hattom, Jewad Selim, Sakar Sleman


List of exhibitors in the Irish Pavilion:

    * 1950 — Norah McGuinness, Nano Reid
    * 1956 — Louis le Brocquy, Hilary Heron
    * 1960 — Patrick Scott
    * 1993 — Dorothy Cross, Willie Doherty
    * 1995 — Kathy Prendergast
    * 1997 — Jaki Irvine, Alistair McLennan
    * 1999 — Anne Tallentire
    * 2001 — Siobhan Hapaska, Grace Weir
    * 2003 — Katie Holten (Commissioner: Valerie Connor)
    * 2005 — Stephen Brandes, Mark Garry, Ronan McCrea, Isabel Nolan, Sarah Pierce, Walker and Walker (Commissioner: Sarah Glennie)
    * 2007 — Gerard Byrne (Commissioner: Mike Fitzpatrick)
    * 2009 — Sarah Browne, Gareth Kennedy, Kennedy Browne
    * 2011 — Corban Walker (Commissioner: Emily-Jane Kirwan)
    * 2013 — Richard Mosse (Commissioner: Anna O'Sullivan)
    * 2015 — Sean Lynch, The Rubberbandits (Commissioner: Mike Fitzpatrick; curator: Woodrow Kernohan)[65][66]
    * 2017 – Jesse Jones, Olwen Fouéré (Curator: Tessa Giblin)


Designed by Zeev Rechter, 1952 (modified by Fredrik Fogh, 1966).[32] Somewhat unusual in the Giardini, the pavilion has three exhibition floors.

Partial list of exhibitors at the Israeli Pavilion:

    * 1982 — Tamar Getter, Michal Na'aman
    * 1986 — Nubani Ibrahim
    * 1988 — Zadok Ben-David
    * 1990 — Ya'acov Dorchin
    * 1993 — Avital Geva
    * 1995 — Joshua Neustein, Uri Tzaig (Curator: Gideon Ofrat)
    * 1997 — Yossi Berger, Miriam Cabessa, Sigalit Landau
    * 2001 — Uri Katzenstein (Curator: Yigal Zalmona)
    * 2003 — Michal Rovner
    * 2005 — Guy Ben-Ner (Curator: Sergio Edelzstein)
    * 2007 — Yehudit Sasportas (Curator: Suzanne Landau)[67]
    * 2009 — Raffi Lavie (Curator: Doreet LeVitte Harten)
    * 2011 — Sigalit Landau (Curators: Jean de Loisy, Ilan Wizga)
    * 2013 — Gilad Ratman (Curator: Sergio Edelstein)
    * 2015 — Tsibi Geva (Curator: Hadas Maor)
    * 2017 – Gal Weinstein (Curator: Tami Katz-Freiman)[68]


"Palazzo Pro Arte": Enrico Trevisanato, façade by Marius De Maria and Bartholomeo Bezzi, 1895; new façade by Guido Cirilli, 1914; "Padiglione Italia", present façade by Duilio Torres, 1932. The pavilion has a sculpture garden by Carlo Scarpa, 1952 and the "Auditorium Pastor" by Valeriano Pastor, 1977.[32]

Partial list of exhibitors at the Italian Pavilion:

    * 1895 — Giuseppe Ferrari
    * 1905 — Giuseppe Ferrari
    * 1912 — Aldo Carpi
    * 1922 — Giuseppe Ferrari (posthumus)
    * 1934 — Aldo Carpi, Carlo Martini
    * 1936 — Aldo Carpi, Carlo Martini, Quinto Martini
    * 1942 — Aldo Carpi, Trento Longaretti
    * 1948 — Aldo Carpi, Trento Longaretti, Carlo Martini
    * 1950 — Aldo Carpi, Trento Longaretti, Carlo Martini
    * 1966 — Ferruccio Bortoluzzi, Trento Longaretti
    * 1968 — Maurizio Nannucci, Maurizio Mochetti, Eliseo Mattiacci, Paolo Masi, Enzo Mari
    * 1986 — Toni Benetton
    * 1990 — Davide Benati, Gino De Dominicis, Nicola De Maria, Luigi Mainolfi, Giuseppe Maraniello, Carlo Maria Mariani, Claudio Olivieri (Curators: Laura Cherubini, Flaminio Gualdoni, Lea Vergine)
    * 1993 — Francesco Clemente, Luciano Fabbro, Emilio Isgrò, Sergio Fermariello, Fabio Mauri, Eugenio Miccini, Hidetoshi Nagasawa, Luisa Protti, Franco Vaccari (Curator: Achille Bonito Oliva)
    * 1995 — Lorenzo Bonechi, Ida Cadorin Barbarigo, Roberto Capucci, Francesco Clemente, Amalia Del Ponte, Stefano Di Stasio, Paolo Gallerani, Paola Gandolfi, Nunzio, Luigi Ontani, Claudio Parmiggiani, Gianni Pisani, Pier Luigi Pizzi, Angelo Savelli, Ruggero Savino, Ettore Spalletti, Vito Tongiani, Mino Trafeli, Giuliano Vangi (Curator: Jean Clair)
    * 1997 — Maurizio Cattelan, Enzo Cucchi, Ettore Spalletti (Curator: Germano Celant)
    * 1999 — Monica Bonvicini, Bruna Esposito, Luisa Lambri, Paola Pivi, Grazia Toderi (Curator: Harald Szeemann)
    * 2001 — Alighiero Boetti, Barry McGee, Todd James, Steve Powers (Curators: Pio Baldi, Paolo Colombo, Sandra Pinto)
    * 2003 — Charles Avery, Avish Khebrehzadeh, Sara Rossi, Carola Spadoni (Curators: Pio Baldi, Monica Pignatti Morano and Paolo Colombo). A12, Alessandra Ariatti, Micol Assaël, Diego Perrone, Patrick Tuttofuoco, Zimmer Frei (curator: Massimiliano Gioni)
    * 2005 — Carolina Antich, Manfredi Beninati, Loris Cecchini, Lara Favaretto (Curators: Pio Baldi, Monica Pignatti Morano and Paolo Colombo)
    * 2007 — Giuseppe Penone, Francesco Vezzoli (Curator: Ida Gianelli)
    * 2009 — Matteo Basilé, Manfredi Beninati, Valerio Berruti, Bertozzi & Casoni, Nicola Bolla, Sandro Chia, Marco Cingolani, Giacomo Costa, Aron Demetz, Roberto Floreani, Daniele Galliano, Marco Lodola, MASBEDO, Gian Marco Montesano, Davide Nido, Luca Pignatelli, Elisa Sighicelli, Sissi, Nicola Verlato, Silvio Wolf (Curators: Luca Beatrice and Beatrice Buscaroli)
    * 2011 — L'Arte non è Cosa Nostra, a group show with 250 artists, including Valerio Adami, Vanessa Beecroft, Agostino Bonalumi, Enzo Cucchi, Roberto Ferri, Michelangelo Pistoletto, Rabarama and Oliviero Toscani (Curator: Vittorio Sgarbi)
    * 2013 — Francesco Arena, Massimo Bartolini, Gianfranco Baruchello, Elisabetta Benassi, Flavio Favelli, Luigi Ghirri, Piero Golia, Francesca Grilli, Marcello Maloberti, Fabio Mauri, Giulio Paolini, Marco Tirelli, Luca Vitone, Sislej Xhafa (Curator: Bartolomeo Pietromarchi)
    * 2015 — Alis/Filliol, Andrea Aquilanti, Francesco Barocco, Vanessa Beecroft, Antonio Biasiucci, Giuseppe Caccavale, Paolo Gioli, Jannis Kounellis, Nino Longobardi, Marzia Migliora, Luca Monterastelli, Mimmo Paladino, Claudio Parmeggiani, Nicola Samorì, Aldo Tambellini (Curator: Vincenzo Trione)
    * 2017 — Giorgio Andreotta Calò, Roberto Cuoghi, Adelita Husni-Bey (Curator: Cecilia Alemani)[69]


Designed by Takamasa Yoshizaka, 1956.[32] Japan has the longest history at the Venice Biennale compared to any other Asian nation.

List of exhibitors in the Japanese Pavilion:

    * 1952 — Taikan Yokoyama, Kokei Kobayashi, Kiyotaka Kaburaki, Heihachirō Fukuda, Kyujin Yamamoto, Kenji Yoshioka, Sotaro Yasui, Shinsen Tokuoka, Ryuzaburo Umehara, Ichiro Fukuzawa, Kigai Kawaguchi
    * 1954 — Hanjiro Sakamoto, Taro Okamoto
    * 1956 — Kunitaro Suda, Kazu Wakita, Takeo Yamaguchi, Shigeru Ueki, Toyoichi Yamamoto, Shiko Munakata
    * 1958 — Ichiro Fukuzawa, Kawabata Ryushi, Seison Maeda, Kenzo Okada, Yoshi Kinouchi, Shindo Tsuji
    * 1960 — Toshimitsu Imai, Yoshishige Saito, Kei Sato, Kaoru Yamaguchi, Tadahiro Ono, Tomonori Toyofuku, Yoshitatsu Yanagihara, Yozo Hamaguchi
    * 1962 — Kinuko Emi, Minoru Kawabata, Kumi Sugai, Tadashi Sugimata, Ryokichi Mukai
    * 1964 — Yoshishige Saito, Toshinobu Onosato, Hisao Domoto, Tomonori Toyofuku
    * 1966 — Toshinobu Onosato, Masuo Ikeda, Morio Shinoda, Ay-O
    * 1968 — Tomio Miki, Kumi Sugai, Jiro Takamatsu, Katsuhiro Yamaguchi
    * 1970 — Nobuo Sekine
    * 1972 — Kenji Usami, Shintaro Tanaka
    * 1976 — Kishin Shinoyama
    * 1978 — Koji Enokura, Kishio Suga
    * 1980 — Koji Enokura, Susumu Koshimizu, Isamu Wakabayashi
    * 1982 — Naoyoshi Hikosaka, Yoshio Kitayama, Tadashi Kawamata
    * 1984 — Kosho Ito, Kyoji Takubo, Kosai Hori
    * 1986 — Isamu Wakabayashi, Masafumi Maita
    * 1988 — Shigeo Toya, Keiji Umematsu, Katsura Funakoshi
    * 1990 — Toshikatsu Endo, Saburo Muraoka
    * 1993 — Yayoi Kusama
    * 1995 — Katsuhiko Hibino, Yoichiro Kawaguchi, Hiroshi Senju, Jae Eun Choi
    * 1997 — Rei Naito
    * 2003 — Yutaka Sone, Motohiko Odani
    * 2005 — Ishiuchi Miyako
    * 2007 — Masao Okabe (Commissioner: Chihiro Minato)
    * 2009 — Miwa Yanagi
    * 2011 — Tabaimo (Curator: Yuka Uematsu)
    * 2013 — Koki Tanaka (Curator: Mike Kuraya)
    * 2015 — Chiharu Shiota (Curator: Hitoshi Nakano)
    * 2017 – Takahiro Iwasaki (Curator: Meruro Washida)[70]

Republic of Kosovo[edit]

List of exhibitors in the Kosovo Pavilion:

    * 2013 — Petrit Halilaj (Curator: Kathrin Rhonberg. Commissioner: Erzen Shkololli)
    * 2015 — Flaka Haliti (Curator: Nicolaus Schafhausen)
    * 2017 – Sislej Xhafa (Curator: Arta Agani. Commissioner: Valon Ibraj)


List of exhibitors in the Kuwait Pavilion:

    * 2013 — "National Works" featuring works by Sami Mohammad and Tarek Al-Ghoussein (Curator: Ala Younis, Commissioner: National Council for Culture, Arts and Letters)[71]
    * 2016 – "Between East and West: A Gulf" curated by Hamed Bukhamseen and Ali Karimi[72][73]


Lebanon was present at the Biennale for the first time in 2007.[74] After being absent in 2009 and 2011, it is coming back in 2013.[75]

    * 2007 — Foreword: Fouad Elkoury, Lamia Joreige, Walid Sadek, Mounira Al Solh and Akram Zaatari (Curators: Saleh Barakat, Sandra Dagher)
    * 2013 — Akram Zaatari (Curators: Sam Bardaouil, Till Fellrath)
    * 2017 — Zad Moultaka (Curator: Emmanuel Daydé)


List of exhibitors in the Lithuanian Pavilion:

    * 1999 — Mindaugas Navakas and Eglė Rakauskaitė
    * 2001 — Deimantas Narkevičius
    * 2003 — Svajonė Stanikas and Paulius Stanikas
    * 2005 — Jonas Mekas
    * 2007 — Nomeda Urbonienė and Gediminas Urbonas
    * 2009 — Žilvinas Kempinas
    * 2011 — Darius Mikšys
    * 2013 — Gintaras Didžiapetris, Elena Narbutaitė, Liudvikas Buklys, Kazys Varnelis, Vytautė Žilinskaitė, Morten Norbye Halvorsen, Jason Dodge, Gabriel Lester, Dexter Sinister (Curator: Raimundas Malašauskas)
    * 2015 — Dainius Liškevičius
    * 2017 — Žilvinas Landzbergas
    * 2019 — Nida Art Colony


The Cà del Duca, situated on the Canale Grande, has been the permanent site for Luxembourg's participations in the Venice Biennale since 1999.

List of exhibitors in the Luxembourg Pavilion:

    * 1990 — Marie-Paule Feiereisen
    * 1993 — Jean-Marie Biwer, Bertrand Ney
    * 1995 — Bert Theis
    * 1997 — Luc Wolf
    * 1999 — Simone Decker
    * 2001 — Doris Drescher
    * 2003 — Su-Mei Tse
    * 2007 — Jill Mercedes
    * 2009 — Gast Bouschet, Nadine Hilbert
    * 2011 — Martine Feipel, Jean Bechameil (Curator: René Kockelkorn)
    * 2013 — Catherine Lorent
    * 2015 — Filip Markiewicz (Curator: Paul Ardenne)
    * 2017 — Mike Bourscheid (Curator: Kevin Muhlen)
    * 2019 — Marco Godinho[76]

    * )


The Maldives Pavilion was introduced in 2013.[77] List of exhibitors in the Maldives Pavilion:

    * 2013 — Mohamed Ali, Sama Alshaibi, Ursula Biemann, Stefano Cagol, Wael Darwesh, Moomin Fouad, Thierry Geoffrey (aka Colonel), Khaled Hafez, Heidrun Holzfeind & Christoph Draeger, Hanna Husberg, Laura McLean & Kalliopi Tsipni-Kolaza, Achilleas Kentonis & Maria Papacaharalambous, Paul Miller (aka DJ Spooky), Gregory Niemeyer, Khaled Ramada, Oliver Ressler, Klaus Schafler, Patrizio Travagli, Wooloo (Sixten Kai Nielsen and Martin Rosengaard), (Curators CPS – Chamber of Public Secrets: Alfredo Cramerotti, Aida Eltorie, Khaled Ramadan)


The Malta Pavilion returned to the Venice Biennale in 2017.[78] They also exhibited in 2000 and 1958. List of exhibitors in the Malta Pavilion:

    * 1958 — Carmelo Mangion, Antoine Camilleri, Emvin Cremona, Frank Portelli, Josef Kalleya
    * 1999 — Vince Briffa, Norbert Francis Attard, Ray Pitre (Curator: Adrian Bartolo)
    * 2017 — Adrian Abela, John Paul Azzopardi, Aaron Bezzina, Pia Borg, Gilbert Calleja, Austin Camilleri, Roxman Gatt, David Pisani, Karine Rougier, Joe Sacco, Teresa Sciberras, Darren Tanti and Maurice Tanti Burlo’ and artefacts from Heritage Malta’s National collection, Ghaqda tal-Pawlini, private collections and various archives (Curators: Raphael Vella and Bettina Hutschek)


The Mexican Pavilion was introduced for the first time in 1950 with the participation of the Muralists: David Alfaro Siqueiros, Diego Rivera, José Clemente Orozco and Rufino Tamayo. For this participation, David Alfaro Siqueiros was awarded the 1st prize to foreign artists. The national participation was interrupted until 2007. The exhibitors that have represented the pavilion are:

    * 1950 – David Alfaro Siqueiros, Diego Rivera, José Clemente Orozco, Rufino Tamayo
    * 2007 – Rafael Lozano-Hemmer
    * 2009 – Teresa Margolles
    * 2011 – Melanie Smith
    * 2013 – Ariel Guzik
    * 2015 – Tania Candiani, Luis Felipe Ortega
    * 2017 – Carlos Amorales (Curator: Pablo León De La Barra)


In 1914, the Swedish Pavilion, designed by Gustav Ferdninand Boberg, was handed over to the Netherlands. In 1954 the Dutch pavilion was demolished and reconstructed on the same site, designed by Gerrit Thomas Rietveld in 1954.[32]

Since 1995, the Mondriaan Foundation has been responsible for the Dutch entry at the Biennale di Venezia, appointing a curator for each entry.

Dutch artists and curators of previous editions:

    * 1956 — Constant, Bart van der Leck, Piet Mondriaan, André Volten
    * 1964 — Karel Appel, Lucebert, J. Mooy
    * 1966 — Constant Nieuwenhuys with paintings, sculptures, New Babylon objects, watercolors and drawings
    * 1968 — Carel Visser
    * 1982 — Stanley Brouwn
    * 1986 — Reinier Lucassen
    * 1988 — Henk Visch
    * 1990 — Rob Scholte
    * 1993 — Niek Kemps
    * 1995 — Marlene Dumas, Maria Roosen, Marijke van Warmerdam (Curator: Chris Dercon)
    * 1997 — Aernout Mik, Willem Oorebeek (Curators: Leontine Coelewij, Arno van Roosmalen)
    * 1999 — Daan van Golden (Curator: Karel Schampers)
    * 2001 — Liza May Post (Curator: Jaap Guldemond)
    * 2003 — Carlos Amorales, Alicia Framis, Meschac Gaba, Jeanne van Heeswijk, Erik van Lieshout (Curator: Rein Wolfs)
    * 2005 — Jeroen De Rijke / Willem de Rooij (Curator: Martijn van Nieuwenhuyzen)
    * 2007 — Aernout Mik (Curator Maria Hlavajova)
    * 2009 — Fiona Tan (Curator: Saskia Bos)
    * 2011 — Barbara Visser, Ernst van der Hoeven, Herman Verkerk, Johannes Schwartz, Joke Robaard, Maureen Mooren, Paul Kuipers, Sanneke van Hassel, Yannis Kyriakides (Curator: Guus Beumer)
    * 2013 — Mark Manders (Curator: Lorenzo Benedetti)
    * 2015 — Herman de Vries (Curators: Colin Huizing, Cees de Boer)
    * 2017 – Wendelien van Oldenborgh (Curator: Lucy Cotter)[79]

New Zealand[edit]

List of exhibitors in the New Zealand Pavilion:

    * 2001 — Peter Robinson and Jacqueline Fraser (Curator: Gregory Burke)
    * 2003 — Michael Stevenson (Curators: Robert Leonard and Boris Kremer)
    * 2005 — et al. (Curator: Natasha Conland)
    * 2007 — Brett Graham and Frank Fu
    * 2009 — Judy Millar (Curator: Leonhard Emmerling) and Francis Upritchard (Curators: Heather Galbraith and Francesco Manacorda)
    * 2011 — Michael Parekowhai
    * 2013 — Bill Culbert (Curator: Justin Paton)
    * 2015 — Simon Denny (Curator: Robert Leonard)
    * 2017 — Lisa Reihana (Curator: Rhana Devenport)

The Nordic Countries[edit]

Designed by Sverre Fehn, 1962 (small annex built by Fredrik Fogh, 1987).[32]

The cooperation between Finland, Norway and Sweden in Venice was initiated in 1962 after the completion of the Nordic Pavilion. Until 1984, the representation of each country was organized nationally.[80] From 1986 to 2009 the pavilion was commissioned as a whole, with the curatorial responsibility alternating between the collaborating countries. From 2011 the cooperation has been temporarily discontinued. In a trial period lasting from 2011 until 2015, the pavilion was used for a national presentation: Sweden in 2011, Finland in 2013, and Norway in 2015.[81]

List of exhibitors in the Nordic Pavilion:[82]

    * 1962 — FINLAND: Ahti Lavonen, Kain Tapper, Esko Tirronen; NORWAY: Rolf Nesch, Knut Rumohr; SWEDEN: Siri Derkert, Per Olof Ulltvedt
    * 1964 — FINLAND: Ina Colliander, Simo Hannula, Pentti Kaskipuro, Laila Pullinen; NORWAY: Hannah Ryggen; SWEDEN: Torsten Andersson, Martin Holmgren, Torsten Renqvist
    * 1966 — FINLAND: Heikki Häiväoja, Harry Kivijärvi, Sam Vanni; NORWAY: Jakob Weidemann; SWEDEN: Öyvind Fahlström
    * 1968 — FINLAND: Mauno Hartman, Kimmo Kaivanto, Ahti Lavonen; NORWAY: Gunnar S. Gundersen; SWEDEN: Sivert Lindblom, Arne Jones
    * 1970 — FINLAND: Juhani Linnovaara; NORWAY: Arnold Haukeland; SWEDEN: Did not participate
    * 1972 — FINLAND: Harry Kivijärvi, Pentti Lumikangas; NORWAY: Arne Ekeland; SWEDEN: Did not participate
    * 1976 — FINLAND: Mikko Jalavisto, Tapio Junno, Kimmo Kaivanto, Ulla Rantanen; NORWAY: Boge Berg, Steinar Christensen/Kristian Kvakland, Arvid Pettersen; SWEDEN: ARARAT (Alternative Research in Architecture, Resources, Art and Technology)
    * 1978 — FINLAND: Olavi Lanu; NORWAY: Frans Widerberg; SWEDEN: Lars Englund
    * 1980 — FINLAND: Matti Kujasalo; NORWAY: Knut Rose; SWEDEN: Ola Billgren, Jan Håfström
    * 1982 — FINLAND: Juhana Blomstedt; NORWAY: Synnøve Anker Aurdal; SWEDEN: Ulrik Samuelson
    * 1984 — FINLAND: Kain Tapper, Carl-Erik Ström; NORWAY: Bendik Riis; SWEDEN: Curt Asker
    * 1986 — "Techne": Bård Breivik (NO), Marianne Heske (NO), Olli Lyytikäinen (FI), Kjell Ohlin (SE), Erik H. Olson (SE), Silja Rantanen (FI), Carl Fredrik Reuterswärd (SE), Osmo Valtonen (FI) (Curator: Mats B.)
    * 1988 — Per Inge Bjørlo (NO), Rolf Hanson (SE), Jukka Mäkelä (FI) (Curator: Maaretta Jaukkuri, FI)
    * 1990 — "Cavén, Barclay, Håfström": Per Barclay (NO), Kari Cavén (FI), Jan Håfström (SE) (Curator: Per Hovdenakk, NO)
    * 1993 — Jussi Niva (FI), Truls Melin (SE), Bente Stokke (NO) (Curator: Lars Nittve, SE)
    * 1995 — Eva Løfdahl (SE), Per Maning (NO), Nina Roos (FI) (Curator: Timo Valjakka, FI)
    * 1997 — "Naturally Artificial": Henrik Håkansson (SE), Mark Dion (US), Marianna Uutininen (FI), Mariko Mori (JP), Sven Påhlsson (NO) (Curator: Jon-Ove Steihaug, NO)
    * 1999 — "End of a Story": Annika von Hausswolff (SE), Knut Åsdam (NO), Eija-Liisa Ahtila (FI). (Curator: John Peter Nilsson, SE)
    * 2001 — "The North is Protected": Leif Elggren (SE), Tommi Grönlund/Petteri Nisunen (FI), Carl Michael von Hausswolff (SE), Anders Tomren (NO) (Curators: Grönlund/Nisunen, FI)
    * 2003 — "Devil-May-Care": Karin Mamma Andersson (SE), Kristina Bræin (NO), Liisa Luonila (FI) (Curators: Anne Karin Jortveit and Andrea Kroksnes, NO)
    * 2005 — "Sharing Space Dividing Time": Miriam Bäckström and Carsten Höller (SE/DE), Matias Faldbakken (NO) (Curator: Åsa Nacking, SE)
    * 2007 — "Welfare — Fare Well": Adel Abidin (IQ/FI), Jacob Dahlgren (SE), Lars Ramberg (NO), Toril Goksøyr & Camilla Martens (NO), Sirous Namazi (SE), Maaria Wirkkala FI (Curator: René Block, DE)
    * 2009 — "The Collectors" (in collaboration with the Danish Pavilion): Elmgreen and Dragset, Klara Lidén (SE), Wolfgang Tillmans (DE) and others (Curators: Elmgreen & Dragset, DK/NO)
    * 2011 — SWEDEN: Fia Backström, Andreas Eriksson (Curator: Magnus af Petersens)
    * 2013 — FINLAND: Terike Haapoja (Curators: Mika Elo, Marko Karo, Harri Laakso)
    * 2015 — NORWAY: Camille Norment (Curator: Katya García-Antón)
    * 2017 – Curator: Mats Stjernstedt

Northern Ireland[edit]

List of exhibitors in the Northern Ireland Pavilion:

    * 2005 — "The Nature of Things", group show with Patrick Bloomer, Patrick Keogh, Ian Charlesworth, Factotum, Séamus Harahan, Michael Hogg, Sandra Johnston, Mary McIntyre, Katrina Moorhead, William McKeown, Darren Murray, Aisling O'Beirn, Peter Richards and Alistair Wilson (curator: Hugh Mulholland)
    * 2007 — Willie Doherty (Curator: Hugh Mulholland)
    * 2009 — Susan MacWilliam (Curator: Karen Downey)


List of exhibitors in the Polish Pavilion:

    * 1970 — Jozef Szajna, " Reminiscences"
    * 1980 — Magdalena Abakanowicz, "Embryology"
    * 1993 — Mirosław Bałka, "Soap Corridor"
    * 1995 — Roman Opalka
    * 1999 — Katarzyna Kozyra, "Men’s Bathhouse"
    * 2003 — Stanisław Dróżdż, "ALEA IACTA EST" project (Curator: Paweł Sosnowski)
    * 2005 — Artur Żmijewski, " Repetition"
    * 2007 — Monika Sosnowska, "1:1" (Curator: Sebastian Cichocki)
    * 2009 — Krzysztof Wodiczko, " Guests " (Curator: Bozena Czubak)
    * 2011 — Yael Bartana, "And Europe will be stunned" (Curators: Sebastian Cichocki, Galit Eilat)
    * 2013 — Konrad Smolenski, "Everything was forever until it was no more" audio installation (Curators: Agnieszka Pindera, Daniel Muzyczuk)
    * 2015 — Joanna Malinowska and C. T. Jasper, "Halka/Haiti 18°48’05″N 72°23’01″W"(Curator: Magdalena Moskalewicz)
    * 2017 — Sharon Lockhart, "Little Review" (Curator: Barbara Piwowarska)[84]


Designed by Alexey Shchusev in 1914. In 1922, 1938—1954, and 1978—1980 pavilion was closed. In both 1926 and 1936 Russian pavilion hosted exhibition of Italian Futurism curated by Filippo Tommaso Marinetti.

List of exhibitors in the Russian Pavilion:

    * 1914 — Group exhibition of 68 artists, including Leon Bakst, Isaak Brodsky, Mikhail Vrubel, Mstislav Dobuzhinsky, Boris Kustodiev
    * 1920 — Group exhibition of 20 artists, including Aleksandr Arсhipenko, Marianne von Werefkin, Natalia Goncharova, Boris Grigoriev, Mikhail Larionov, Dmitry Stelletsky, Alexej von Jawlensky
    * 1924 — Group exhibition of 97 artists, including Nathan Altman, Lev Bruni, Igor Grabar, Boris Kustodiev, Aristarkh Lentulov, Kazimir Malevich, Mikhail Matyushin, Ilya Mashkov, Kuzma Petrov-Vodkin, Lyubov Popova, Nadezhda Udaltsova, Robert Falk, Vassily Chekrygin, Sergei Chekhonin, David Shterenberg, Alexandra Ekster
    * 1928 — Group exhibition of 72 artists, including Nathan Altman, Abram Arkhipov, Aleksandr Deineka, Petr Kontchalovsky, Elizaveta Kruglikova, Kuzma Petrov-Vodkin, Yuriy Pimenov, Robert Falk
    * 1930 — Group exhibition of 47 artists, including Aleksandr Deineka, Aleksandr Labas, Aristarkh Lentulov, Yuriy Pimenov, David Schterenberg
    * 1932 — Group exhibition of 49 artists, including Isaak Brodsky, Aleksandr Deineka, Petr Konchalovsky, Aleksandr Labas, Kuzma Petrov-Vodkin, Yuriy Pimenov, David Schterenberg
    * 1934 — Group exhibition of 23 artists, including Isaak Brodsky, Aleksandr Deineka, Vera Mukhina, Kuzma Petrov-Vodkin
    * 1956 — Group exhibition of 72 artists, including Igor Grabar, Aleksandr Deineka, Boris Ioganson, Petr Konchalovsky, Pavel Korin, Ilya Mashkov, Vera Mukhina, Georgy Nissky, Yuriy Pimenov, Nadezhda Udaltsova, Semen Chuikov, Kukryniksy
    * 1958 — Group exhibition of 17 artists, including Evgeny Vuchetich, Sergej Gerasimov, Kukryniksy, Georgy Nissky, Yuriy Pimenov, Arkady Plastov
    * 1960 — Group exhibition of 22 artists, including Aleksandr Deineka, Kukryniksy, Dmitry Moor, Vera Mukhina, Andrey Mylnikov, Georgy Nissky (Commissioner: Irina Antonova)
    * 1962 — Group exhibition of 12 artists, including Mikhail Anikushin, Sergey Konenkov, Geliy Korzhev, Viktor Popkov, Tair Salakhov (Commissioner: Larissa Salmina)
    * 1964 — Group exhibition of 42 artists, including Aleksandr Deineka, Pavel Korin, Evsey Moiseenko, Vladimir Stozharov, Evgeny Vuchetich
    * 1966 — Group exhibition of 26 artists, including Vladimir Stozharov, Dmitry Zhilinsky, Misha Brusilovsky
    * 1968 — Group exhibition of 15 artists, including Dmitry Bisti, Arkady Plastov, Yuri Vasnetsov
    * 1970 — Nikolay Andreev, Aleksandr Deineka
    * 1972 — Group exhibition of 31 artists, including Evsey Moiseenko, Kuzma Petrov-Vodkin, Nikolay Tomsky
    * 1976 — Group exhibition of 45 artists, including Georgy Nissky, Yuriy Pimenov, Tair Salakhov, Vladimir Stozharov
    * 1977 — Group exhibition of 99 artists in frames of Biennale of Dissident, including Erik Bulatov, Ilya Kabakov, Andrey Monastyrsky, Oskar Rabin, Oleg Vasiliev, Anatoly Zverev
    * 1982 — Group exhibition of 32 artists, including Tatiana Nazarenko, Viktor Popkov, Dmitry Zhilinsky
    * 1984 — Group exhibition of 6 artists, including Nikolay Akimov, Aleksandr Tyshler
    * 1986 — Group exhibition of 23 artists, including Dmitry Bisti, Vladimir Favorsky
    * 1988 — Aristarkh Lentulov
    * 1990 — Group exhibition of 7 artists, including Evgeny Mitta, Robert Rauschenberg, Aidan Salakhova
    * 1993 — Ilya Kabakov
    * 1995 — Evgeny Ass, Dmitry Gutov, Vadim Fishkin (Commissioner: Victor Misiano)
    * 1997 — Maksim Kantor (Commissioner: Konstantin Bokhorov; curator: Yury Nikich)
    * 1999 — Sergey Bugaev (Afrika), Vitaly Komar & Aleksandr Melamid (Commissioner: Konstantin Bokhorov; curators: Olesya Turkina, Joseph Bakshtein)
    * 2001 — Leonid Sokov, Olga Chernyshova, Sergey Shutov (Commissioner: Leonid Bazhanov; curator: Ekaterina Degot)
    * 2003 — Sergey Bratkov, Aleksandr Vinogradov & Vladimir Dubossarsky, Konstantin Zvezdochetov, Valery Koshlyakov (Commissioner: Evgeny Zyablov; curator: Victor Misiano)
    * 2005 — Provmyza group, Program 'Escape' (Commissioner: Evgeny Zyablov; curators: Olga Lopukhova, Lyubov Saprykina)
    * 2007 — AES+F, Andrey Bartenev, Georgy Frangulian, Arseny Mescheryarov, Julia Milner, Alexandr Ponomarev (Commissioner: Vassily Tsereteli; curator: Olga Sviblova)
    * 2009 — Alexei Kallima, Andrei Molodkine, Gosha Ostretsov, Anatoly Zhuravlev, Sergei Shekhovtsov, Irina Korina, Pavel Peppershtein (Commissioner: Vassily Tsereteli; curator: Olga Sviblova)
    * 2011 — Andrey Monastyrsky and "Collective Actions" group (Elena Elagina, Sabina Hensgen, Igor Makarevich, Nikolai Pantikov, Sergei Romashko and others) (Commissioner: Stella Kesaeva; curator: Boris Groys)
    * 2013 — Vadim Zakharov (Commissioner: Stella Kesaeva; curator: Udo Kittelmann)
    * 2015 — Irina Nakhova (Commissioner: Stella Kesaeva; curator: Margarita Tupitsyn)
    * 2017 — Grisha Bruskin, Sasha Pirogova (ru), Georgy Kuznetsov, Andrei Blokhin (Curator: Semyon Mikhailovsky)[89]


List of exhibitors in the Scottish Pavilion:

    * 2003 — Claire Barclay, Jim Lambie, Simon Starling
    * 2005 — Alex Pollard, Joanne Tatham & Tom O'Sullivan, Cathy Wilkes
    * 2007 — Charles Avery (artist), Henry Coombes, Louise Hopkins, Rosalind Nashashibi, Lucy Skaer, Tony Swain,
    * 2009 — Martin Boyce
    * 2011 — Karla Black
    * 2013 — Corin Sworn, Duncan Campbell (artist), Hayley Tompkins
    * 2015 — Graham Fagen
    * 2017 — Rachel Maclean[91]
    * 2019 — Charlotte Prodger[92]


List of exhibitors in the Serbian Pavilion:

    * 2012 —Marija Mikovic, Marija Strajnic, Olga Lazarevic, Janko Tadic, Nebojsa Stevanovic, Milos Zivkovic, Aleksandar Ristovic, Nikola Andonov, Milan Dragic and Marko Marovic [93]
    * 2015 — Ivan Grubanov (Curator: Lidija Merenik)[94]


The Seychelles Pavilion was first introduced in 2015, by the proposal of artist Nitin Shroff,[95] featuring "A Clockwork Sunset".[96] The Pavilion was commissioned by the Seychelles Art Projects Foundation and curated by Sarah J. McDonald and Victor Schaub Wong.

List of exhibitors in the Seychelles Pavilion:

    * 2015 – George Camille, Leon Wilma Lois Radegonde

The 2017 Seychelles Pavilion featured the work of Group Sez, a collective comprising the following artists:

    * 2017 - Alyssa Adams, Tristan Adams, George Camille, Christine Chetty-Payet, Zoe Chong Seng, Daniel Dodin, Charle Dodo, Allen Ernesta, Christine Harter, Nigel Henri, Alcide Libanotis, Marc Luc, Egbert Marday, Colbert Nourrice, Leon Radegonde, Danny Sopha.

The Pavilion was commissioned by the government of the Republic of Seychelles (commissioner Benjamine Rose) and curated by Martin Kennedy under the exhibition title 'Slowly, Quietly'.

List of exhibitors in the Singapore Pavilion:

    * 2001 — Chen KeZhan, Salleh Japar, Matthew Ngui, Suzanne Victor
    * 2003 — Heman Chong, Francis Ng, Tan Swie Hian
    * 2005 — Lim Tzay Chuen (Curator: Eugene Tan)[97]
    * 2007 — Tang Da Wu, Vincent Leow, Jason Lim and Zulkifle Mahmod (Curator: Lindy Poh)
    * 2009 — Ming Wong (Curator: Tang Fu Kuen)
    * 2011 — Ho Tzu Nyen (Curator: June Yap)
    * 2015 — Charles Lim (Curator: Shabbir Hussain Mustafa)
    * 2017 — Zai Kuning (Curator: June Yap)


List of exhibitors in the Slovenian Pavilion:

    * 2007 — Tobias Putrih
    * 2009 — Miha Štrukelj
    * 2013 — Jasmina Cibic[98]
    * 2015 — Jaša Mrevlje Pollak (Curators: Michele Drascek, Aurora Fonda)[99]
    * 2017 — Nika Autor (Curator: Andreja Hribernik)[99]

South Africa[edit]

    * 1993 – Jackson Hlungwane, Sandra Kriel, Tommy Matswai (Curator: Christopher Till)
    * 1995 – Randolph Hartzenberg, Brett Murray (Curator: Malcolm Payne)
    * 2011 – Mary Sibande, Siemon Allen, Lyndi Sales (Curator: Thembinkosi Goniwe)
    * 2013 – Nelisiwe Xaba, Zanele Muholi, Wim Botha, Joanne Bloch, David Koloane, Gerhard Marx, Maja Marx, Philip Miller, Cameron Platter, John Muafangejo, Johannes Phokela, Andrew Putter, Alfred Martin Duggan-Cronin, Penny Siopis, Kay Hassan, Sue Williamson, Donna Kukama, Athi-Patra Ruga, James Webb, Kemang wa Lehulere, Sam Nhlengethwa (Curator: Brenton Maart)
    * 2015 – Willem Boshoff, Haroon Gunn-Salie, Angus Gibson, Mark Lewis, Gerald Machona, Mohau Modisakeng, Nandipha Mntambo, Brett Murray, Serge Alain Nitegeka, Jo Ractliffe, Robin Rhode, Warrick Sony, Diane Victor, Jeremy Wafer (Curators: Christopher Till and Jeremy Rose)
    * 2017 — Candice Breitz, Mohau Modisakeng (Curator: Lucy MacGarry)[100]

South Korea[edit]

Designed by Seok Chul Kim and Franco Mancuso, 1995.[32]

South Korea has participated in the Venice Biennale since 1995.[101]

List of exhibitors in the South Korean Pavilion:

    * 1995 — Yoon Hyong Keun, Kwak Hoon, Kim In Kyum, Jheon Soocheon (Commissioner: Il Lee)
    * 1997 — Hyungwoo Lee, Ik-joong Kang (Curator: Oh Kwang Soo)
    * 1999 — Lee Bul, Noh Sang-Kyoon (Curator: Misook Song)
    * 2001 — Michael Joo, Do-Ho Suh (Commissioner: Kyung-mee Park)
    * 2003 — Whang In Kie, Bahc Yiso, Chung Seoyoung (Commissioner: Kim Hong-Hee)
    * 2007 — Hyungkoo Lee (Commissioner: Soyeon Ahn)
    * 2009 — Haegue Yang (Commissioner: Eungie Joo)
    * 2011 — Lee Yong-baek (Commissioner: Yun Chea-gab)
    * 2013 — Kimsooja (Curator: Seungduk Kim)
    * 2015 — Moon Kyungwon, Jeon Joonho (Curator: Sook-Kyung Lee)
    * 2017 — Cody Choi, Lee Wan (Curator: Lee Daehyung)


Designed by Javier de Luque, 1922 (façade restored by Joaquin Vaquero Palacios, 1952).[32]

List of exhibitors in the Spanish Pavilion:

    * 1954 — Miguel Ortiz Berrocal
    * 1958 — Eduardo Chillida
    * 1970 — Gaston Orellana
    * 1984 — Antoni Clavé
    * 1988 — Susana Solano
    * 1993 — Antoni Tàpies
    * 1999 — Manolo Valdés, Esther Ferrer (Curator: David Pérez)
    * 2001 — Ana Laura Aláez, Javier Pérez (Curator: Estrella de Diego)
    * 2003 — Santiago Sierra (Curator: Rosa Martínez)
    * 2005 — Antoni Muntadas (Curator: Bartomeu Marí)
    * 2007 — Manuel Vilariño, José Luis Guerín, "Los Torreznos", Rubén Ramos (Curator: Alberto Ruiz de Samaniego)
    * 2009 — Miquel Barceló (Curator: Enrique Juncosa)
    * 2011 — Dora García (Curator: Katya García-Antón)
    * 2013 — Lara Almarcegui (Curator: Octavio Zaya)
    * 2015 — Francesc Ruiz, Pepo Salazar, Cabello/Carceller (Curator: Martí Manen)
    * 2017 — Jordi Colomer (Curator: Manuel Segade)[102]


Pavillon designed by Bruno Giacometti, 1952.[32] Between 1990 and 2009, Switzerland also used the San Stae church as exhibition venue. From 1932 until 1952 Switzerland had another pavilion, designed by Brenno Del Giudice on the island Sant'Elena.

As of 2012, Pro Helvetia has assumed responsibility for the Swiss contributions to the Venice Biennale.

List of exhibitors in the Swiss Pavilion:

    * 1920 — Group exhibition
    * 1926 — Group exhibition
    * 1932 — Paul Bodmer, Numa Donzé, Augusto Giacometti, Karl Otto Hügin, Reinhold Kündig, Martin Lauterburg, Ernst Morgenthaler, Alfred Heinrich Pellegrini, Karl Geiser, Hermann Haller, Hermann Hubacher, Johann Jakob Probst, René Auberjonois, Maurice Barraud, Hans Berger, Abraham Hermanjat, Albert Carl Angst
    * 1934 — Cuno Amiet, Hermann Haller
    * 1936 — Aldo Patocchi, Emilio Maria Beretta, Max Uehlinger
    * 1938 — Victor Surbek, Hermann Hubacher, Hans Berger
    * 1940 — Louis René Moilliet, Johann Jakob Probst, Alexandre Blanchet
    * 1942 — Karl Walser, Otto Charles Bänninger, Max Hunziker
    * 1948 — Fritz Pauli, Franz Fischer, René Auberjonois, Albert Schnyder
    * 1950 — Alfred Heinrich Pellegrini, Ernst Suter
    * 1952 — Hans Fischer, Max Gubler, Johann Jakob Probst
    * 1954 — Cuno Amiet, Carl Burckhardt, Paul Speck, Marcel Poncet
    * 1956 — Hans Aeschbacher, Walter Bodmer, Johannes Burla, Eugen Häfelfinger, Walter Linck, Bernhard Luginbühl, Robert Müller, Erwin Rehmann, Sophie Taeuber-Arp, Louis Weber, André Gigon, Hansjörg Gisiger, René Monney, Antoine Poncet, Léon Prébandier, André Ramseyer, Serge Brignoni
    * 1958 — Max Bill, Richard Paul Lohse, Camille Graeser, Theodor Bally, Wolf Barth, Walter Bodmer, Theo Eble, Fritz Glarner, Leo Leuppi, Louis René Moilliet, Wilfrid Moser, Max Rudolf von Mühlenen
    * 1960 — Otto Tschumi, Varlin, Robert Müller
    * 1962 — Albert Schilling, Paul Speck, Louis René Moilliet
    * 1964 — Zoltán Kemény, Bernhard Luginbühl
    * 1966 — Johannes Itten, Walter Linck
    * 1968 — Fritz Glarner, Hans Aeschbacher
    * 1970 — Peter Stämpfli, Walter Vögeli, Jean-Edouard Augsburger
    * 1972 — Richard Paul Lohse, Willy Weber
    * 1976 — Max Altorfer, Claude Loewer
    * 1978 — Raffael Benazzi, Roland Hotz, Jean Lecoultre
    * 1980 — Peter Steiner, Wilfrid Moser, Oscar Wiggli
    * 1982 — Dieter Roth
    * 1984 — Miriam Cahn
    * 1986 — John Armleder, Aldo Walker
    * 1988 — Markus Raetz
    * 1990 — Olivier Mosset
    * 1993 — Christoph Rütimann
    * 1995 — Peter Fischli & David Weiss
    * 1997 — Urs Frei, Helmut Federle
    * 1999 — Roman Signer
    * 2001 — Urs Luthi, Norbert Möslang, Andy Guhl
    * 2003 — Emmanuelle Antille, Gerda Steiner, Jörg Lenzlinger
    * 2005 — Pipilotti Rist, Ingrid Wildi, Gianni Motti, Shahryar Nashat, Marco Poloni (curator: Stefan Banz)
    * 2007 — Yves Netzhammer, Ugo Rondinone, Urs Fischer, Christine Streuli (curators: Urs Staub, Andreas Münch)
    * 2009 — Silvia Bächli, Fabrice Gygi (Commissioner: Andreas Münch, Curator: Urs Staub)
    * 2011 — Thomas Hirschhorn/"Chewing the Scenery" (Curator: Andrea Thal)
    * 2013 — Valentin Carron (Curator: Giovanni Carmine)
    * 2015 — Pamela Rosenkranz (Curator: Susanne Pfeffer)
    * 2017 — Carol Bove, Teresa Hubbard / Alexander Birchler (Curator: Philipp Kaiser)[103][104]
    * 2019 — Pauline Boudry / Renate Lorenz (Curator: Charlotte Laubard)


In 2013, Turkey signed a 20-year lease for a national pavilion at the Venice Biennale. The state-funded Istanbul Foundation for Culture and Arts is the co-ordinator of the Turkish pavilion.[105]

List of exhibitors in the Turkish Pavilion:

    * 1990 — Kemal Önsoy, Mithat Şen (Curator: Beral Madra)
    * 1993 — Erdağ Aksel, Serhat Kiraz, Jȧrg Geismar, Adem Yilmaz (Curator: Beral Madra)
    * 2001 — Murat Morova, Butch Morris, Ahmet Öktem, Sermin Sherif, (Güven Icirlioğlu & Hakan Topal) (Curator: Beral Madra)
    * 2003 — Nuri Bilge Ceylan, Ergin Çavuşoğlu, Gül Ilgaz, Neriman Polat, Nazif Topçuoğlu (Curator: Beral Madra)
    * 2005 — Hussein Chalayan (Curator: Beral Madra)
    * 2007 — Hüseyin Alptekin (Curator: Vasif Kortun)
    * 2009 — Banu Cennetoğlu, Ahmet Ögüt (Curator: Basak Senova)
    * 2011 — Ayşe Erkmen (Curator: Fulya Erdemci)
    * 2013 — Ali Kazma (Curator: Emre Baykal)
    * 2015 — Sarkis (Curator: Defne Ayas)[106]
    * 2017 — Cevdet Erek[107]


The PinchukArtCentre sponsored Ukraine's pavilions in 2007, 2009 and 2015.[27]

List of exhibitors in the Ukrainian Pavilion:

    * 2005 — Mykola Babak «Your Children, Ukraine» (Curator: Oleksiy Tytarenko)
    * 2011 — Oksana Mas «Post-vs-Proto-Renaissance» (Curator: Oleksiy Rogotchenko)
    * 2013 — Ridnyi Mykola, Zinkovskyi Hamlet, Kadyrova Zhanna (Curators: Soloviov Oleksandr, Burlaka Victoria)
    * 2015 — Yevgenia Belorusets, Nikita Kadan, Zhanna Kadyrova, Mykola Ridnyi & Serhiy Zhadan, Artem Volokitin, Anna Zvyagintseva and Open Group (Curator: Björn Geldhof)
    * 2017 — Boris Mikhailov (Curator: Peter Doroshenko)

United Arab Emirates[edit]

The United Arab Emirates' Venice pavilion first opened in 2009, but 2015 was the first time an Emirati has served as curator.

List of exhibitors in the UAE Pavilion:

    * 2009 — Lamya Gargash (Commissioner: Dr Lamees Hamdan; Curator: Tirdad Zolghadr)
    * 2011 — Abdullah Al Saadi, Sheikha Lateefa bint Maktoum, Reem Al Ghaith (Curator: Vasif Kortun)
    * 2013 — Mohammed Kazem (Commissioner: Dr. Lamees Hamdan; Curator: Reem Fadda)
    * 2015 — Hassan Sharif, Mohammed Kazem, Abdullah Al Saadi, Ahmed Al Ansari, Moosa Al Halyan, Mohammed Al Qassab, Abdul Qader Al Rais, Mohammed Abdullah Bulhiah, Salem Jawhar, Dr. Najat Makki, Abdulraheem Salim, Obaid Suroor, Dr. Mohamed Yousif, and Abdulrahman Zainal (Curator: Hoor Al Qasimi)[110]

United States[edit]

The United States Pavilion at the Venice Biennale was constructed in 1930[111] by the Grand Central Art Galleries, a nonprofit artists' cooperative established in 1922 by Walter Leighton Clark together with John Singer Sargent, Edmund Greacen, and others.[112] As stated in the Galleries' 1934 catalog, the organization's goal was to "give a broader field to American art; to exhibit in a larger way to a more numerous audience, not in New York alone but throughout the country, thus displaying to the world the inherent value which our art undoubtedly possesses."[113]

In 1930 Walter Leighton Clark and the Grand Central Art Galleries spearheaded the creation of the U.S. Pavilion at the Venice Biennale.[114][115] The pavilion's architects were William Adams Delano, who also designed the Grand Central Art Galleries, and Chester Holmes Aldrich. The purchase of the land, design, and construction was paid for by the galleries and personally supervised by Clark. As he wrote in the 1934 catalog:


The pavilion, owned and operated by the galleries, opened on May 4, 1930. Approximately 90 paintings and 12 sculptures were selected by Clark for the opening exhibition. Artists featured included Max Boehm, Hector Caser, Lillian Westcott Hale, Edward Hopper, Abraham Poole, Julius Rolshoven, Joseph Pollet, Eugene Savage, Elmer Shofeld, Ofelia Keelan, and African-American artist Henry Tanner. U.S. Ambassador John W. Garrett opened the show together with the Duke of Bergamo.[111]

The Grand Central Art Galleries operated the U.S. Pavilion until 1954, when it was sold to the Museum of Modern Art (MOMA). Throughout the 1950s and 1960s shows were organized by MOMA, Art Institute of Chicago, and Baltimore Museum of Art. The Modern withdrew from the Biennale in 1964, and the United States Information Agency ran the Pavilion until it was sold to the Guggenheim Foundation courtesy of funds provided by the Peggy Guggenheim Collection.[116]

Since 1986 the Peggy Guggenheim Collection has worked with the United States

Partial list of exhibitors at the United States Pavilion:[119]

    * 1930 — Edward Hopper, Julius Rolshoven, Eugene Savage, Henry Tanner.[111]
    * 1950 (26th) — Arshile Gorky, Willem de Kooning, Jackson Pollock
    * 1952 (27th) - Alexander Calder, Stuart Davis, Edward Hopper, and Yasuo Kuniyoshi
    * 1954 (28th) — Willem de Kooning, Ben Shahn
    * 1960 (30th) — Philip Guston, Hans Hofmann, Franz Kline, Theodore Roszak
    * 1962 (31st) — Jan Müller, Louise Nevelson
    * 1964 (32nd) — John Chamberlain, Jim Dine, Jasper Johns, Morris Louis, Kenneth Noland, Claes Oldenburg, Robert Rauschenberg, Frank Stella
    * 1966 (33rd) — Helen Frankenthaler, Ellsworth Kelly, Roy Lichtenstein, Jules Olitski
    * 1968 (34th) — Leonard Baskin, Edwin Dickinson, Richard Diebenkorn, Red Grooms, James McGarrell, Reuben Nakian, Fairfield Porter, Byron Burford
    * 1970 (35th) — Survey of American Prints and Printmaking (Commissioner: Lois A. Bingham; curator: Henry T. Hopkins)
    * 1972 (36th) — Diane Arbus, Ronald Davis, Richard Estes, Sam Gilliam, Jim Nutt, Keith Sonnier(Commissioner: Walter Hopps)
    * 1976 (37th) — Richard Artschwager, Charles Garabedian, Robert Irwin, Donald Judd, Agnes Martin, Robert Motherwell, Ed Ruscha, Robert Ryman, Joel Shapiro, Richard Tuttle, Andy Warhol, H.C. Westermann (Commissioner: Thomas M. Messer; curators: Hugh M. Davies, Sam Hunter, Rosalind Krauss, Marcia Tucker)
    * 1978 (38th) — Harry Callahan, Richard Diebenkorn (Commissioner: Robert T. Buck, Jr.; curators: Peter Bunnell, Linda Cathcart)
    * 1980 (39th) — Vito Acconci, Christo, Laurie Anderson and others (Commissioner: Janet Kardon)
    * 1982 (40th) — Jess, Robert Smithson (posthumous), Richard Pousette-Dart (Commissioner: Thomas W. Leavitt; curator: Robert Hobbs)
    * 1984 (41st) — Eric Fischl, Charles Garabedian, Melissa Miller and others (Commissioner: Marcia Tucker; curators: Lynn Gumpert, Ned Rifkin)
    * 1986 (42nd) — Isamu Noguchi (Commissioner: Henry Geldzahler)[120]
    * 1988 (43rd) — Jasper Johns (Curator: Mark Rosenthal)[121]
    * 1990 (44th) — Jenny Holzer — Mother and Child (Commissioner: Michael Auping)
    * 1993 (45th) — Louise Bourgeois (Curator: Charlotta Kotik)[122]
    * 1995 (46th) — Bill Viola — Buried Secrets (Curator: Marilyn A. Zeitlin)[123]
    * 1997 (47th) — Robert Colescott (Commissioner: Mimi Roberts)[124]
    * 1999 (48th) — Ann Hamilton (Curators: Katy Kline, Helaine Posner),[125] Yoko Ono, David Bowes[126]
    * 2001 (49th) — Robert Gober (Curators: Olga M. Viso, James Rondeau)
    * 2003 (50th) — Fred Wilson (Commissioner and curator: Kathleen Goncharov).[127]
    * 2005 (51st) — Ed Ruscha (Commissioner: Linda Norden; curator: Donna De Salvo)
    * 2007 (52nd) — Félix González-Torres (posthumous) (Curator: Nancy Spector)
    * 2009 (53rd) — Bruce Nauman (Curators: Carlos Basualdo, Michael R. Taylor)[128]
    * 2011 (54th) — Allora & Calzadilla (Commissioner: Lisa Freiman)
    * 2013 (55th) — Sarah Sze (Curators: Holly Block, Carey Lovelace)
    * 2015 (56th) — Joan Jonas (Commissioner: Paul C. Ha, Curators: Paul C. Ha, Ute Meta Bauer)[129]
    * 2017 (57th) — Mark Bradford (Curators: Christopher Bedford, Katy Siegel)[130]


Ex-warehouse of the Biennale, 1958, ceded to the government of Uruguay, 1960.[32]

List of exhibitors in the Uruguayan Pavilion:

    * 1954 — José Cuneo, Severino Pose
    * 1956 — Joaquín Torres García
    * 1960 — Zoma Baitler, Washington Barcala, Norberto Berdia, José Cuneo, José Echave, Adolfo Halty, Augusto Torres, Vicente Martìn, Julio Verdier (Commissioner: Jorge Pàez Vilaró)
    * 1962 — Germán Cabrera, Juan Ventayol
    * 1964 — Jorge Damiani, José Gamarra, Nelson Ramos, Jorge Páez Vilaró
    * 1968 — Antonio Frasconi (Commissioner: Angel Kalenberg)
    * 1970 — Taller de Montevideo (Armando Bergallo, Ernesto Vila, Héctor Vilche) (Commissioner: Angel Kalenberg)
    * 1972 — Luis A. Solari (Commissioner: Angel Kalenberg)
    * 1986 — Ernesto Aroztegui, Clever Lara (Commissioner: Angel Kalenberg)
    * 1988 — Luis Camnitzer (Commissioner: Angel Kalenberg)
    * 1990 — Gonzalo Fonseca (Commissioner: Angel Kalenberg)
    * 1993 — Águeda Dicancro
    * 1995 — Ignacio Iturria (Commissioner: Angel Kalenberg)
    * 1997 — Nelson Ramos
    * 1999 — Ricardo Pascale
    * 2001 — Rimer Cardillo (Commissioner: Cléver Lara)
    * 2003 — Pablo Atchugarry (Curator: Luciano Caramel)
    * 2005 — Lacy Duarte (Commissioners: Alicia Haber, Olga Larnaudie)
    * 2007 — Ernesto Vila (Commissioner: Enrique Aguerre)
    * 2009 — Raquel Bessio, Juan Burgos, Pablo Uribe (Commissioners: Patricia Bentancur, Alfredo Torres)
    * 2011 — Alejandro Cesarco, Magela Ferrero (Curator: Clio Bugel)
    * 2013 — Wifredo Díaz Valdéz (Curators: Carlos Capelán, Verónica Cordeiro)
    * 2015 — Marco Maggi (Curator: Patricia Bentancur)
    * 2017 – Mario Sagradini (Curator: Gabriel Peluffo Linari)


Designed by Carlo Scarpa, 1956.[32]

List of exhibitors in the Venezuelan Pavilion:

    * 1964 — Jesús Rafael Soto
    * 1970 — Carlos Cruz-Diez, Jesús Rafael Soto
    * 1978 — Luisa Richter
    * 1980 — Regulo Pérez
    * 1988 — Jacobo Borges
    * 1990 — Julio Pacheco Rivas
    * 1995 — Meyer Vaisman
    * 2005 — Santiago Pol (Commissioner: Vivian Rivas Gingerich)
    * 2007 — Antonio Briceño, Vincent & Feria (Commissioner: Zuleiva Vivas)
    * 2009 — Claudio Perna, Antonieta Sosa, Alejandro Otero
    * 2011 — Francisco Bassim, Clemencia Labin, Yoshi (Curator: Luis Hurtado)
    * 2013 — Colectivo de Artistas Urbanos Venezolanos (Curator: Juan Calzadilla)
    * 2015 — Argelia Bravo, Félix Molina (Flix) (Curator: Oscar Sotillo Meneses)


The Wales pavilion was introduced in 2003.[131][132]

List of exhibitors in the Wales Pavilion:

    * 2003 — Bethan Huws[133] & Cerith Wyn Evans[134] & Simon Pope [5]
    * 2005 — Peter Finnemore, Laura Ford & Paul Granjon[135][136][137]
    * 2007 — Richard Deacon, Merlin James, & Heather and Ivan Morison[138]
    * 2009 — John Cale[139]
    * 2011 — Tim Davies[140]
    * 2013 — Bedwyr Williams[141]
    * 2015 — Helen Sear (Curator: Ffotogallery)
    * 2017 — James Richards[142]


    * 2011 – Tapfuma Gutsa, Misheck Masamvu, Berry Bickle, Calvin Dondo. (Commissioner: Doreen Sibanda; curator: Raphael Chikukwa)
    * 2013 – Portia Zvavahera, Michele Mathison, Rashid Jogee, Voti Thebe, Virginia Chihota. (Commissioner: Doreen Sibanda; curator: Raphael Chikukwa)
    * 2015 – Chikonzero Chazunguza, Masimba Hwati, Gareth Nyandoro. (Commissioner: Doreen Sibanda; curator: Raphael Chikukwa)
    * 2017 – Charles Bhebe, Admire Kamudzengerere, Sylvester Mubayi, Dana Whabira. (Commissioner: Doreen Sibanda; curator: Raphael Chikukwa)


The Venice Biennale has awarded prizes to the artists participating at the Exhibition since the first edition back in 1895. Grand Prizes were established in 1938 and ran until 1968 when they were abolished due to the protest movement. Prizes were taken up again in 1986. The selections are made by the Board of la Biennale di Venezia, following the proposal of the curator of the International Exhibition.

Also, the Biennale names the five members of its international jury, which is charged with awarding prizes to the national pavilions.[144]
1938 to 1968[edit]
This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.

    * 1948 :
          o Grand Prize for Painting: Georges Braque[145]
          o Grand Prize for Sculpture: Henry Moore
    * 1950 :
          o Grand Prize for Painting: Henri Matisse[146]
          o Grand Prize for Sculpture: Ossip Zadkine
    * 1952 :
          o Grand Prize for Painting: Raoul Dufy
          o Special Prize for Sculpture: Alexander Calder
    * 1954 :
          o Grand Prize for Painting: Max Ernst[147]
          o Grand Prize for Sculpture: Jean Arp
    * 1956 :
          o Grand Prize for Painting: Jacques Villon (France)
          o Special Prize for Sculpture: Lynn Chadwick (Great Britain)
          o International Grand Prize for Drawing: Aldemir Martins (Brazil)
    * 1958:
          o International Grand Prize for Painting: Mark Tobey (United States)
          o International Grand Prize for Sculpture: Eduardo Chillida (Spain)
          o National Grand Prize for Painting: Giulio Turcato, Osvaldo Licini
          o National Grand Prize for Sculpture: Umberto Mastroianni
    * 1960 :
          o Grand prize for painting Jean Fautrier (France), Hans Hartung (France), Emilio Vedova (Italy)
          o City of Venice prize for an Italian artist: Pietro Consagra
    * 1962
          o Grand prize for painting: Alfred Manessier
          o Grand prize for sculpture: Alberto Giacometti
    * 1964:
          o Foreign artist: Robert Rauschenberg (United States)
    * 1966 :
          o Foreign artist: Julio Le Parc
          o Italian artist: Lucio Fontana, Alberto Viani
    * 1968 :
          o Grand prize for painting: Bridget Riley
          o Grand prize for sculpture: Nicolas Schöffer
          o Italian artist: Gianni Colombo, Pino Pascali

Since 1986[edit]

    * 1986 :
          o Leone d'Oro for Lifetime Achievement: Frank Auerbach, Sigmar Polke (Germany)
          o Leone d'Oro for Best Pavilion: Daniel Buren (France)
    * 1988 :
          o Leone d'Oro for Lifetime Achievement: Jasper Johns (USA)
          o Leone d'Oro for Best Pavilion: Italy
    * 1990 :
          o Leone d'Oro for Lifetime Achievement: Giovanni Anselmo (Italy), Bernd and Hilla Becher (Germany)
          o Leone d'Oro for Best Pavilion: Jenny Holzer (USA)
    * 1993 :
          o Leone d'Oro for Lifetime Achievement: Richard Hamilton (United Kingdom), Antoni Tàpies (Spain), Robert Wilson (USA)
          o Leone d'Oro for Best Pavilion: Hans Haacke, Nam June Paik (Germany)
    * 1995:
          o Leone d'Oro for the Best Artist of the international exhibition: Gary Hill (USA), R. B. Kitaj (USA)
          o Leone d'Oro for Best Pavilion: Akram El Magdoub, Hamdi Attia, Medhat Shafik, Khaled Shokry (Egypt)
    * 1997 :
          o Leone d'Oro for Lifetime Achievement: Emilio Vedova (Italy), Agnes Martin (USA)
          o Leone d'Oro for the Best Artist of the international exhibition: Marina Abramović (USA) and Gerhard Richter (Germany)
          o Leone d'Oro for Best Pavilion: Fabrice Hybert (France)
    * 1999 :
          o Leone d'Oro for Lifetime Achievement: Louise Bourgeois (France), Bruce Nauman (USA)
          o Leone d'Oro for the Best Artist of the international exhibition: Doug Aitken (USA), Cai Guo-Qiang (China), and Shirin Neshat (Iran)
          o Leone d'Oro for Best Pavilion: Monica Bonvicini, Bruna Esposito, Luisa Lambri, Paola Pivi, Grazia Toderi (Italy)
    * 2001 :
          o Leone d'Oro for Lifetime Achievement: Richard Serra (USA), Cy Twombly (USA)
          o Leone d'Oro for the Best Artist of the international exhibition: Janet Cardiff & George Bures Miller, Marisa Merz (Italy), and Pierre Huyghe (France)
          o Leone d'Oro for Best Pavilion: Gregor Schneider (Germany)
    * 2003 :
          o Leone d'Oro for Lifetime Achievement: Michelangelo Pistoletto (Italy), Carol Rama (Italy)
          o Leone d'Oro for the Best Artist of the international exhibition: Peter Fischli and David Weiss (Switzerland)
          o Leone d'Oro for the Best Young Artist: Oliver Payne and Nick Relph (United Kingdom)
          o Leone d'Oro for Best Pavilion: Su-Mei Tse (Luxemburg)
    * 2005 :
          o Leone d'Oro for Lifetime Achievement: Barbara Kruger (USA)
          o Leone d'Oro for the Best Artist of the international exhibition: Thomas Schütte (Germany)
          o Leone d'Oro for the Best Young Artist: Regina José Galindo (Guatemala)
          o Leone d'Oro for Best Pavilion: Annette Messager (France)
    * 2007 :
          o Leone d'Oro for Lifetime Achievement: Malick Sidibé (Mali)
          o Leone d'Oro for the Best Artist of the international exhibition: León Ferrari (Argentina)
          o Leone d'Oro for the Best Young Artist: Emily Jacir (USA)
          o Leone d'Oro for Best Pavilion: Andreas Fogarasi (Hungary)
    * 2009 :
          o Leone d'Oro for Lifetime Achievement: Yoko Ono (Japan), John Baldessari (USA)
          o Leone d'Oro for the Best Artist of the international exhibition: Tobias Rehberger (Germany)
          o Leone d'Argento for the Best Young Artist: Nathalie Djurberg (Sweden)
          o Leone d'Oro for Best Pavilion: Bruce Nauman (USA)
    * 2011 :
          o Leone d'Oro for Lifetime Achievement: Franz West (Austria), Elaine Sturtevant (USA)
          o Leone d'Oro for the Best Artist of the international exhibition: Christian Marclay (USA)
          o Leone d'Argento for the Best Young Artist: Haroon Mirza (United Kingdom)
          o Leone d'Oro for Best Pavilion: Christoph Schlingensief, curated by Susanne Gaensheimer (Germany)
    * 2013 :
          o Leone d'Oro for Lifetime Achievement: Maria Lassnig (Austria), Marisa Merz (Italy)
          o Leone d'Oro for the Best Artist of the international exhibition: Tino Sehgal (United Kingdom/Germany)
          o Leone d'Argento for the Best Young Artist: Camille Henrot (France)
          o Leone d'Oro for Best Pavilion: Stefano Rabolli Pansera and Paula Nascimento (Angola)
    * 2015 :
          o Leone d'Oro for Lifetime Achievement: El Anatsui (Ghana)
          o Leone d'Oro for the Best Artist of the international exhibition: Adrian Piper (USA)
          o Leone d'Argento for the Best Young Artist: Im Heung-soon (South Korea)
          o Leone d'Oro for Best Pavilion: Haig Aivazian, Nigol Bezjian, Anna Boghiguian, Hera Büyüktaş, Silvina Der Meguerditchian, Ayreen Anastas and Rene Gabri, Mekhitar Garabedian, Aikaterini Gegisian, Yervant Gianikian and Ricci Lucchi, Aram Jibilian, Nina Katchadourian, Melik Ohanian, Mikayel Ohanjanyan, Rosana Palazyan, Sarkis, Hrair Sarkissian, curated by Adelina Cüberyan von Fürstenberg (Armenia)
    * 2017 :
          o Leone d'Oro for Lifetime Achievement: Carolee Schneemann (United States)[148]
          o Leone d'Oro for the Best Artist of the international exhibition: Franz Erhard Walther (Germany)
          o Leone d'Argento for the Best Young Artist: Hassan Khan (Egypt)
          o Leone d'Oro for Best Pavilion: Anne Imhof (Germany)

      other Biennale :(Biennials ) :
       Venice Biennial , Documenta Havana Biennial,Istanbul Biennial ( Istanbuli),Biennale de Lyon ,Dak'Art Berlin Biennial,Mercosul Visual Arts Biennial ,Bienal do Mercosul Porto Alegre.,Berlin Biennial ,Echigo-Tsumari Triennial .Yokohama Triennial Aichi Triennale,manifesta ,Copenhagen Biennale,Aichi Triennale .Yokohama Triennial,Echigo-Tsumari Triennial.Sharjah Biennial ,Biennale of Sydney, Liverpool , São Paulo Biennial ; Athens Biennale , Bienal do Mercosul ,Göteborg International Biennial for Contemporary Art ,DOCUMENTA KASSEL ATHENS
    *     Dakar
ritique #biennalist #venicebiennale # institutional critic critique